sciencefiction level body machine melding’. Wearables range from ‘the
eminently practical’ to the ‘utterly fantastical’. The
functions of these digital technologies are not necessarily novel: paper maps have
existed for centuries; pedometers date back to the eighteenth century; devices
measuring distances cycled or walked, spectacles, prosthetic devices and
wristwatches are further examples of historical wearable technologies ( Carter et al. , 2018
and two notions of time and politics: first, the notion that the future is
something that can be produced or at least influenced by our actions;
and second, the idea that the future is in some sense predetermined –
and we cannot escape it. The first is, if you like, a linear, progressive
notion of time; the second could be seen as a more circular picture.
Crucially though, both see time as an external background against
which events unfold; time exists independently of us, and the film
postulates a sciencefiction world where we can travel through this
Religious influences on the depictions of science in mainstream movies
David A. Kirby and Amy C. Chambers
), the fearless vampire hunters must turn to
ancient religious rites to defeat a monster that has descended upon
an unsuspecting and technologically advanced London on the cusp
of a new century. A distrust of scientists, who have turned away from
morality and religion to dabble disastrously in questions of creation,
runs through classic sciencefiction stories of biological horror and
hybridity, like H. G. Wells’s The Island of Dr Moreau (1996 )
and Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr
Hyde (2000 ), respectively.
informed debate. Openness about how we arrive at conclusions on
the basis of evidence is what enables the type of empirical self-corrective
knowledge creation that science has (often rightly) claimed to be.
Why is it, then, that openness – in science, but also in other domains
of life – has become such a buzzword in the twenty-first century? There
1 Dave Eggers’s 2013 novel The Circle is a stark illustration of this, particularly since
it was meant as sciencefiction and yet seems to describe the cult of transparency
as a solution to social problems.
. (2011). Does climate change knowledge really matter? Climate
Change, 2(4), 475–481.
Sharman, A. (2014). Mapping the climate sceptical blogosphere. Global
Environmental Change, 26, 159–170.
Spencer, R. W. (2007). An Inconvenient Truth: Blurring the lines between
science and sciencefiction. GeoJournal, 70(1), 11–14.
Steig, E. J. (2008). Another look at An Inconvenient Truth. GeoJournal, 70(1),
Tufte, E. R. (2003). The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint. Cheshire, CT: Graphics
Turnbull, A. (2011). The really inconvenient truth or ‘it ain’t necessarily so
ideas are often disregarded as ‘they lack knowledge’ or ‘they have too vivid an imagination’ in the same way that mentally ill
people’s are called delusions. A young person thinking they can fly is put down
to lack of knowledge of gravity whereas an adult discussing astral projection or
a sciencefiction writer’s character defying gravity is categorised as ‘scientific
phenomena’ or ‘creativity’. The child’s status or the mentally ill person’s status
warrants their ideas as ‘invalid’, often without prior consideration.
However, children can and have covertly taken part
some of the overlapping relationships between millenarianism,
environmentalism and anarchism. The history of anarchism has been periodically peppered with advocates of non-aligned or anti-institutional forms of religious belief. Of the classical anarchists, Leo Tolstoy was perhaps the most
Why anarchism still matters
sympathetic to religious beliefs, although some of his ideas are problematic
(Hopton, 2000). More recently Taoism has become linked to anarchist ideas by
a number of thinkers (Clark, 1984; Rapp, 1998) and in the sciencefiction novels