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Divine destruction in Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay
Chloe Porter

in a context in which completion is conceptualised as transgression? To begin to answer these questions, this chapter will explore image-breaking in Robert Greene’s Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay (first performed c. 1589), which presents an instance of onstage iconoclasm in the supernatural destruction of a demonic brazen head, a quasi-magical figure that had been

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
Owen Davies

so much a process of secularization but of decreasing reliance on the spiritual support of the Church. The only way of maintaining popular participation was to accommodate folk beliefs, involve people in the manifestation of the supernatural, and promote the practical application of religion. A classic example of such a clerical response was Abbé Olive’s Association de Notre-Dame des Sept-Douleurs de Boulleret , which was

in Witchcraft Continued
Antony and Cleopatra and visual musical experience
Simon Smith

, ‘instrumental music – whatever symbolic weight it might carry – is almost always assumed to be audible to the characters on stage’ as well as to the audience, unless explicitly framed as otherwise.26 When unseen music appeared, then, providing there was no suggestion that it was supernatural, disembodied and invisible, the audience’s overwhelming understanding would be that the dramatic world extended beyond the playhouse’s stage to the location of this hidden sound. Early modern playmakers exploited playgoers’ desires to see the music in order to create this effect of

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
medical pluralism and the search for hegemony
Enrique Perdiguero

period. 21 For the historian the problem posed by these sources lies in the preoccupation of medical authors to locate the world of ‘popular beliefs’ in the context of the ‘irrational’ supernatural, thereby ignoring other aspects of popular medicine considered less ‘superstitious’ that were also part of the cultural repertoires about illness. 22 An examination of the sources discussed above certainly

in Witchcraft Continued
The discourse of spirits in Enlightenment Bristol
Jonathan Barry

those who believed in the reality of supernatural forces in this case, and sought to defend this view publicly. Even though the identities and motives of the sceptics are less clear, and no detailed work has been done on the social circumstances of the family at the centre of the case, enough can be deduced to draw tentative conclusions about what the episode may have meant to them as well. Sources: private and public debate In an earlier essay I used the diaries of William Dyer, covering the second half of the eighteenth century, to question some of the assumptions

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Romances, novels, and the classifications of Irish Romantic fiction
Christina Morin

the history of the novel as well as in the development of the literary gothic, as Clery observes ( Castle of Otranto , p. 9). What makes Otranto so important, Clery contends, is its combination of the realism of the novel and the fantasy of the romance: ‘The credible emotions of the characters connect us to incredible phenomena and events and allow terror to circulate via a process of identification and projection’. 13 David Punter similarly argues that it is Otranto 's merging of realism and romance in the form of the supernatural that establishes the novel as

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
Sabine Doering-Manteuffel and Stephan Bachter

10 Beyond the witch trials The dissemination of magical knowledge The dissemination of magical knowledge in Enlightenment Germany The supernatural and the development of print culture Sabine Doering-Manteuffel The so-called Age of Enlightenment has traditionally been portrayed as a phase of European history during which new philosophies came into existence concerning people’s ability to determine their own fate through reason. This era saw the development of future-oriented conceptions of state and society as well as new ideas about mankind’s ability to

in Beyond the witch trials
Interpreting deposition in the bog
Melanie Giles

. Those that could ‘warm the road’ and keep these connections open may have earned not just social but supernatural renown (see Giles 2012 : 229–30). The vehicles that best embody such power come from Denmark. The Bronze Age Trondholm sun-chariot falls out of the main scope of our study but it is a bog find that suggests a deeper cosmological resonance for the wheeled vehicle. Randsborg and Christiensen ( 2006 ) argue that it represents a model of the cosmos in which the wagon or chariot was a vehicle of celestial movement, drawing the sun across the sky. It

in Bog bodies
Author: Christina Morin

The gothic novel in Ireland, 1760–1830 offers a compelling account of the development of gothic literature in late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century Ireland. Against traditional scholarly understandings of Irish gothic fiction as a largely late-nineteenth century development, this study recovers to view a whole body of Irish literary production too often overlooked today. Its robust examination of primary texts, the contexts in which they were produced, and the critical perspectives from which they have been analysed yields a rigorous account of the largely retrospective formal and generic classifications that have worked to eliminate eighteenth-century and Romantic-era Irish fiction from the history of gothic literature. The works assessed here powerfully demonstrate that what we now understand as typical of ‘the gothic novel’– medieval, Catholic Continental settings; supernatural figures and events; an interest in the assertion of British modernity – is not necessarily what eighteenth- and nineteenth-century readers or writers would have identified as ‘gothic’. They moreover point to the manner in which scholarly focus on the national tale and allied genres has effected an erasure of the continued production and influence of gothic literature in Romantic Ireland. Combining quantitative analysis with meticulous qualitative readings of a selection of representative texts, this book sketches a new formal, generic, and ideological map of gothic literary production in this period. As it does so, it persuasively positions Irish works and authors at the centre of a newly understood paradigm of the development of the literary gothic across Ireland, Britain, and Europe between 1760 and 1830.

Open Access (free)
Essays on Modern American Literature
Author: David Herd

Modern American literature began with a statement of enthusiasm from Emerson's writing in Nature. 'Enthusiasm', in Emerson, is a knowing word. Sometimes its use is as description, invariably approving, of a historic form of religious experience. Socrates' meaning of enthusiasm, and the image of the enthusiast it throws up, is crucial to this book. The book is a portrait of the writer as an enthusiast, where the portrait, as will become clear, carries more than a hint of polemic. It is about the transmission of literature, showing various writers taking responsibility for that transmission, whether within in their writing or in their cultural activism. Henry David Thoreau's Walden is an enthusiastic book. It is where enthusiasm works both in Immanuel Kant's sense of the unbridled self, and in William Penn's sense of the 'nearer' testament, and in Thoreau's own sense of supernatural serenity. Establishing Ezra Pound's enthusiasm is a fraught and complicated business. Marianne Moore composed poems patiently, sometimes over several years. She is a poet of things, as isolated things - jewels, curios, familiar and exotic animals, common and rare species of plant - are often the ostensible subjects of her poems. Homage to Frank O'Hara is a necessary book, because the sum of his aesthetic was to be found not just in his writing, but also in his actions to which only friends and contemporaries could testify. An enthusiastic reading of James Schuyler brings to the fore pleasure, the sheer pleasure that can come of combining, or mouthing, or transcribing.