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commitments, not all women experience these difficulties equally. A checkout operator in Dunnes Stores cannot afford to pay for domestic backup, whereas a well paid professional woman can afford a full-time nanny or au pair. The gap between rich and poor continued to increase during the years of the economic boom and, despite government protestations to the contrary, there has been little attempt to distribute the benefits of the Celtic Tiger equally. The Justice Commission of the Conference of Religious in Ireland (CORI) estimates that the average income gap between rich

in The end of Irish history?

moments in the Second World War. A similar fluidity in the significance of clothing occurs in religious identity. In medieval and Catholic Europe, simple dress was part of the identity of monks, friars, and nuns, and if there was colour, it was often black or brown. The Protestant reaction in and after the European Reformation distanced itself from what it saw as the excesses of the Catholic church by adopting its own version of the very visual signs of Catholic monasticism: simple clothes, absence of colour, preference for black

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)
A reminder from the present

the successive standoffs at Drumcree and the loyalist blockade of the Holy Cross girls’ school, there is no place within the new administrative order within which an accommodationist middle ground can develop. It is not surprising, given the existence of a political system which undermines the power of appeals to cross-community sentiment, that parties such as the Women’s Coalition and Alliance have seen their fortunes slump in recent elections. Devolution and the delivery of the BA have not aided the development of a centrist political culture but rather have

in The end of Irish history?
Just war and against tyranny

progenitors of the concept? We need to bear in mind that we are dealing with polemical tracts, whose agenda was to save Protestants being persecuted for religious reasons. 56 As Trim points out, ‘the monarchomach authors conceived of “tyranny” in narrow confessional terms. Roman Catholic regimes were assumed to be tyrannical, because of the way they “oppressed” Protestants’. 57 This included the Pope. Hotman, for instance, characterized Rome as ‘innately, permanently

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
‘Locals’ and ‘Moroccans’ in the Sainte-Foy-Bordeaux vineyards

crystallised in religion, the status of women, and eating practices. At lunch time in the vineyards, the fact that Moroccans neither drink wine nor eat pork pâté is regarded by their fellow workers and bosses, who consider themselves ‘native French’ or ‘European’, as an additional boundary. As we will see, racism suffered by these workers is not confined to the lower classes. The town councillors themselves are no exception, pejoratively calling their small town ‘Marrakech’. The installation of video surveillance cameras, requested by the inhabitants of Sainte

in Alternative countrysides
Anti-Islam and anti-Muslim sentiments

and the abuse of women, however, that features most frequently in the characterisation of Islam as oppressive and intolerant. Jack sums this up as ‘Women are second-class citizens; they have to walk behind their husband.’ The burqa is widely deployed as a symbol of this inequality although it is recognised by a number of respondents that its wearing is a cultural norm rather than a religious requirement. Thus the burqa is described as being imposed by fathers (Jordan) or husbands (Chas, Matt) as a means of control over women: … nowhere in the Qur’an does it say they

in Loud and proud
Open Access (free)

is a further dimension to Puritanism: it followed from the priesthood of all believers, in that any one of the faithful could, and should, express his or her faith through appearance. The eighteenth century, whilst frequently seen as a time of fading religious enthusiasm whose character was simply emphasised by the contrary zeal of Methodism, began with legislative assertion of religious identity at the pinnacle of public life. No one could ascend to or occupy the throne who was a Roman Catholic, and the monarch must be in communion with the

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)

the massacres of communists in the 1960s, Muslim or Buddhist rituals were replaced by various forms of religious syncretism.8 More recently, in Rwanda, Evangelical churches have rushed into the breach left open by the nervousness of the country’s Catholic Church, some of whose members were caught up in accusations of participation in the genocide, thereby offering a space of charismatic renewal in Christian ritual practice.9 In all of these cases it is as if the sheer scale of the murder and its unique nature prevented an extension of the usual fune­rary rituals to

in Human remains in society
The tragedy (and comedy) of accelerated modernisation

the world today’. 122 eih ch-7.P65 122 26/3/03, 15:14 Millenarianism and utopianism 123 We in Ireland are also caught up in these world historical processes of modernisation and experiences of modernity, all be it modulated and mediated by our own histories, our own insertion into the global political economy, and our own particular experiences as members of different socio-economic classes, religious and political persuasions, as men and women, as urban and rural dwellers, as native born and as newcomers, as Travellers and minorities. Furthermore, the

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
A bird’s eye view of intervention with emphasis on Britain, 1875–78

of mayhem with some sixty towns and villages in ashes and a staggering number of massacred women and children, which came to be known in Europe as the ‘Bulgarian atrocities’. Reasonable estimates of dead vary from 12,000 to 30,000. The first figure was suggested in the report by the British consul Walter Baring (who had been sent from Constantinople to assess the situation), who, though pro-Ottoman, came out with a scathing indictment of the behaviour of the irregulars

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century