A Toilet Revolution and its socio-eco-technical entanglements
-building, motivated a series of campaigns to abandon and replace the traditional night soil collection system over time. For instance, the State Council’s Patriotic Health Campaign in the 1950s led to the establishment of health campaign committees at all levels of governance to oversee its implementation (Yang, 2004 ). When China embarked on its journey to opening up and reforms in the late 1970s, the Patriotic Health Campaign was marginalised, and the focus shifted to rapid economic development. In line with the start of rapid urbanredevelopment in the 1980s, a more integrated
town or local landscape. In
practice and research, placemaking is often linked to urbanredevelopment. Although rural placemaking is less well researched,
Lee and Blackford ( 2020 ) consider placemaking
an important framework for individual and collective identity and
well-being in rural areas.
Well-being can be measured individually as ‘a