, Swabia, Bavaria, and
Lorraine – which included the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg
on today’s map). They did not, however, prove to be durable territories.
Election of kings by the nobility in the CarolingianEmpire was a
Germanic influence that complemented the Roman administrative institutions adapted to the local conditions. This meant that the king was
more primus unter pares, and that the kingdom represented a central
authority versus particularistic tendencies.2 The empire followed this tradition of election in the selection of emperors by the stem dukes