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John J. Hurt

, the Conseil d’État et des Finances, which also issued decrees concerning the tribunals. Even before he became controller general of finances in 1665, Colbert had taken over all political and financial relations with the law courts, having driven the aging Chancellor Séguier out of most areas of domestic administration, a sharp break with traditional practice.2 For the most part, Colbert approached the Parlement of Paris and the provincial tribunals with firmness but with no a priori intention of reducing their role in French public life, let alone in the registration

in Louis XIV and the parlements
Bonnie Evans

the development of an ‘archipelago’ of ‘think-tanks’ established in the post-war period in Britain and internationally with support by interested donors, who developed an international model of neoliberalism as a valid political philosophy. 1 The 1980s saw this political model thrive and it continued to hold weight in British politics and elsewhere in the 2000s through the

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Jane Brooks

demands that had been placed on them by military commanders and society in general.25 Even in a highly mobile war the expectation was that nurses, as women, would be kept away from combat, yet as nurses their skills were needed close to the front line. Ultimately, whatever the political rhetoric about the safety of women in war, trained nurses’ skills were essential in combat zones to salvage soldiers.26 Despite this, they still needed to broker careful gender negotiations on active service overseas to ensure their place at the front. In July 1943 Sister Agnes Morgan

in Negotiating nursing
George Campbell Gosling

of the village socialist who has to submit to a political lecture from the squire before he can get one?’ 9 This system was not particular to the Bristol Infirmary and became the standard means of accessing services as the voluntary hospital system expanded through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 10 In the latter, however, admission directly by doctors increasingly became an alternative, including at the Bristol

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Open Access (free)
Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

organisation of reflex pathways’. Deemed to be even better at dealing with complete individuals, he eventually transferred to the office of Executive Dean of the Medical School, who provided continuity, remaining in post whilst elected Deans came and went after a mere three years in authority. It was he who directed one of the largest operations ever chap 6 23/9/03 1:17 pm Page 123 New direction 123 undertaken by the University, the tripling in size of the Medical School and the planning, construction and commissioning of the Stopford Building on Oxford Road to

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Sabine Clarke

provide autonomy and status for scientific researchers working in government service. The fact that the discourse on science and development that emerged in the 1940s could encompass both the idea of research as the basis of planning and research as an activity in which freedom for researchers was paramount was possible because of the multiple meanings that could be attached to the idea of fundamental research. This was a concept of considerable political utility. Research and colonial development after 1940 In 1938, the

in Science at the end of empire
The emergence of bioethics in British universities
Duncan Wilson

5 ‘A service to the community as a whole’: the emergence of bioethics in British universities Bioethics made inroads into British universities during the 1980s, thanks largely to those individuals, groups and political changes that we have already encountered. During the late 1970s and early 1980s members of medical groups and public figures such as Ian Kennedy called for greater emphasis on medical ethics in student training. They also stressed the benefits of ‘non-medical’ input, claiming that it relieved clinicians from teaching responsibilities and would

in The making of British bioethics
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

, framed in terms of Christian values and morally ‘worthy’ recipients. In the working-class realist literature of the interwar period ideas about welfare are couched in terms of rights and entitlements to fair workplace treatment and compensation, where the emphasis is more often on the (im)morality of political systems such as capitalism, rather than on the ‘worthiness’ of specific individuals.2 Yet, some historians have emphasised the problems with narratives based on the linear progression from individualism to collectivism, or from a paucity of provision to a ‘new

in Disability in industrial Britain
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

agents of the disease, and curative serums were developed. 3 The impact of Freire's vaccine was partly due to the proliferation of microbe hunters, medical and scientific associations and periodicals, colonial and commercial interests, in addition to Freire's zeal in fostering social alliances at a time when science was helping to transform Brazil's political and social structures. Freire's vaccine

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Nicholas Atkin

–June 1940, it was overwhelmed with offers of interpreters and assistance.47 2499 Chap2 7/4/03 40 2:42 pm Page 40 The forgotten French At the main London stations, the porters, in the politically incorrect words of one WVS official, ‘all worked like blacks, without any tips’.48 The suspicion must remain, however, that things would have been very different if the 200,000 or so refugees that the government had originally been envisaging had actually arrived. Late arrivals: The Royal Victoria Patriotic School With hindsight, what is surprising is the laxity of

in The forgotten French