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Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

direct political powers to be exercised, in periods of crisis for either steel or coal (due to, say, overproduction), independently of a Council of Ministers, i.e. the representatives of the governments of the Six. A Common Assembly consisting of delegations from national parliaments was thrown in almost as an afterthought, reflecting the weak power of parliaments vis-à-vis executives at the time. Finally, a Court of Justice was to ensure compliance with the ECSC Treaty. If the Schuman Plan was welcomed by the Six, it was rejected by the British. The British Prime

in Destination Europe
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Life and opinions
Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

and transact other business. Many students disliked the politics of the NUS Executive, which seemed too moderate in the mid1960s and both extreme and self-paralysing ten years later. The Men’s Union had withdrawn from NUS in 1954 while the Women’s Union retained their membership, but in 1959 a General Meeting had voted in favour of returning all components of the federal Union to the NUS. It was, however, tempting to economise amid the stringency of the mid-1970s by cancelling the Union’s block subscription to the national organisation. Proposals to follow the

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
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‘“United action” in Continental politics’
Heloise Brown

the work of the existing British and American Peace Societies, who are already performing the functions 102 ellen robinson of a Bureau’. The key problem for the Peace Society, as a supposedly nonpolitical association, was the potentially political nature of the Bureau and of some of the associations that would affiliate to it. While wishing to co-operate with such organisations, the Executive Committee deemed itself ‘unable to place itself unreservedly at the mercy of “united action” [Robinson’s phrase] in Continental politics, in which it would have but a minor

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
British women in international politics
Heloise Brown

‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ 9 ‘A new kind of patriotism’? 1 British women in international politics P revious chapters have outlined the diverse contexts in which reformulations of patriotism and citizenship emerged. The feminist movement produced arguments based on ‘separate spheres’ ideologies which held that women’s contribution to the public sphere would bring an increased recognition of humanity in international relations. In contrast, peace workers such as Priscilla Peckover based their arguments on how a full understanding of pacifism would lead

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Patrick Doyle

-President of the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction (DATI). Ever the patrician, Plunkett remained an unapologetic defender of the role played by members of the landlord class in the regeneration of Irish soil and society. His faith in the innate moral and intellectual superiority of his class made Plunkett a somewhat problematic leader for a movement committed to the pursuit of non-political interventions. The composition of the IAOS Executive was certainly an obvious target for criticism, although the story proved more complex at a local level. Plunkett

in Civilising rural Ireland
Heloise Brown

– particularly their use of the personal, which contrasted with the dry, legalistic style used by the men – was dismissed as subjective, unscholarly and irrelevant.3 While these questions of social norms were undoubtedly an issue within the feminist movement, and indeed Victorian society as a whole, such disputes operated in very specific ways for the women who were active within pacifism. As a political pressure group the peace movement prioritised the work of its male members, including, after the extension of the franchise to many working men in 1867, working-class men via

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
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Campaigns and causes
Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

depicted is not recorded). In the later 1970s there was a surprising and perhaps unprecedented shift in student politics towards the moderate Right. In 1976, and particularly in the Union elections of 1977 and 1978, Conservatives gained ground and eventually won a majority on the Executive. For the Federation of Conservative Students, then in moderate mood, had begun to assert itself in student politics, and The Sunday Times reported a recruiting drive in the universities and colleges throughout the country. Evidently Conservative Party strategists believed that by

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Defending Cold War Canada
Katie Pickles

defence, immigrant training and citizenship courts. Such work continued the IODE’s mission for a British-influenced Canada. The IODE’s reaction to the Cold War reflected a forced reconsideration of Canadian identity. While the IODE promoted democratic principles of progressive conservatism, its methods and its attitude to Communists were influenced by an individualism and a politics more often associated

in Female imperialism and national identity
Patrick Doyle

At the IAOS's 1909 annual conference, Æ delivered an extraordinary speech in which he accused the movement of lacking ‘the vital heat’ displayed by nationalist and unionist political organisations at work in Ireland. Fifteen years after the first gathering of delegates Æ used this opportunity to challenge those assembled to consider and question what values initially drew them into the co-operative movement: We want to find our ideal – the synthesis of all these co-operative efforts. Butter

in Civilising rural Ireland
Martin D. Moore

guidelines on diabetes management, worked on NHS Executive projects, and operated on many of the guideline committees formed and funded by the Department of Health. 104 Influential figures were also connected through training and research with other major figures in the field, such as Harry Keen, John Nabbarro, or Robert Tattersall. 105 Specific proposals and documents, in other words, emerged out of both broader political contexts and well-defined intellectual and policy communities. Moving between different levels of the health services, and

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine