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Eşref Aksu

international community, focusing specifically on the objectives and authority of the UN in relation to intra-state peacekeeping environments in the two specified time periods. As a first step, we established that both international normative prescriptions and the UN as actor had evolved under the influence of structural changes in world politics. The early 1960s and the early 1990s

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

January 1960, to the surprise of Congolese leaders, Belgium agreed to grant independence to the Congo as early as 30 June 1960. 9 The ensuing elections failed to produce a politically well organised Congolese Parliament. 10 Consisting of some 70 ethnic groups, the Congolese body politique was characterised by strong communal and regional networks and loyalties. Within this complex

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace
Jeffrey Sosland

questions of force and conflict ( Haas, Keohane and Levy, 1993 ). Some environmental problems, though, in particular resource scarcity, can be a source of political tension and may contribute to violence within and between states. The environmental security subfield has dodged the tricky issue of defining security by initially focusing on instances where environmental problems clearly

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Eşref Aksu

normative basis of UN peacekeeping and the UN’s evolving role in world politics. The literature on the UN’s Cambodia experience has rightly pointed to the ‘comprehensive’ nature of the mission. What is less well understood is the normative meaning and implications of this comprehensiveness, which is what this chapter seeks to elucidate. Here we explore the local, regional and global interests

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

the evolution of the mission itself illustrates how an ever-expanding political space was created for the UN in relation to the conflict. In this chapter, we pay particular attention to the second phase of the operation, UNAVEM II, which marked a transition from inter-state peacekeeping to intra-state peacekeeping. During this transitional period the scope and size of UNAVEM were significantly altered – a

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

security’, and subsequently found its way to the normative basis of intra-state peacekeeping in the early 1960s. Korea was the first and only embodiment of the consensual ‘collective security’ idea in the Cold War period. That the Soviet bloc strongly opposed the American-led UN action, while of significance politically and of explanatory value for subsequent UN inaction in several instances, is normatively

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

escalating crisis, and when the Greek Cypriot side firmly rejected alternative courses of action. 26 Britain had not been keen to see a UN peacekeeping operation in the Congo either. In the face of rapid decolonisation, the British tried to maximise their political dominance in what they perceived to be their sphere of influence. With the situation deteriorating, the British delegation finally requested an

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

actor in its own right, the UN is a unique entity mirroring (but also influencing) the political and normative processes in the entire international community. This study focuses on the expectations which relevant actors have of the UN in relation to intra-state conflicts as can be discerned by examining peacekeeping environments. 19 The ‘UN’ is used in this study to refer to any

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change