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Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

to come to blows, a puzzling state of affairs. A secular, pro-Western democracy, representing everything Iran despises, Ankara was positive that Tehran sought to export the revolution to Turkey. Ankara knew that it would be an extraordinary coup for the revolution should Iran manage successfully to subvert Turkey, a key Muslim state, a symbol of profane worldly rule, as well as a strategic and ideological adversary. Regularly and violently, Iran raged against the Turkish secular state, against Turkish democracy, and against Turkey’s blind

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Amikam Nachmani

In a 1992 issue of Time magazine, in an article on Turkey, the writer inserted the following “ad” in the middle: Help Wanted Nation to serve as go-between for the Western world and the Middle East and assist in turning suspicion into cooperation. Must be firm U.S.–European ally desirous of still closer ties yet, Islamic in religion and culture, capable of serving as a role model of secularized Western democracy for other Muslim states. Ethnic links with some of those states, booming free

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
The ‘defending democracy’ in Israel – a framework of analysis
Ami Pedahzur

response and that of other Western democracies, principally, the United States and Germany. Placing the Israeli case in a comparative perspective exemplifies, first, the potential of the theoretical perspective proposed in this book, a perspective which in fact makes comparative analysis feasible. Second, widening the scope beyond the Israeli case study underscores the challenges which confronted and still confront the society and the State of Israel in contrast to other societies and makes it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the tools wielded by the State in

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
The social sphere
Ami Pedahzur

Israel (61 per cent of Israelis claimed there were full equal rights in Israel in comparison to 22 per cent of immigrants). The significance of these findings is that while Israelis born and educated in this country adopted reigning attitudes regarding the democratic nature of the State, immigrants from Western democracies, wielding a broader perspective of the implementation of the democratic ideal, expressed a greater degree of scepticism regarding Israel’s conformity to the liberal democratic model. Yet, the State of Israel did not settle for

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Analysing two arenas over time
Wolfgang Wessels
,
Andreas Maurer
, and
Jürgen Mittag

, Chapter 2 in this volume, pp. 32–33. Richard Sinnott, ‘Bringing Public Opinion Back in’, in: Oskar Niedermayer and Richard Sinnott (eds), Public Opinion and International Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), op. cit. pp. 11–32 (here p. 31). See especially with regard to this function Leon D. Epstein: Political Parties in Western Democracies, Second Edition (New Brunswick, New York: Transaction Books, 1980); Gunter Jasmut, Die politischen Parteien und die europäische Integration (Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang, 1995), p. 23. John Gaffney, ‘Introduction

in Fifteen into one?
Jan Koehler
and
Christoph Zürcher

system of dzhamaat. In Dagestan, ‘dzhamaat’ denotes a solidarity group, based primarily on neighbourhoods and not on ethnicity that has been in existence since the fifteenth century. In today’s Dagestan, the dzhamaat forms the core political unit and performs many functions that in western democracies are performed by political parties. Dagestan’s constitution and electoral law reinforces the importance of the dzhamaat: in Dagestan, only single-mandate electoral constituencies exist, and in each constituency only representatives from one ethnic group can run in

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
The state of surprise
Andrew Monaghan

demonstrations in 2011 variously with the collapse of the USSR, ‘Arab Spring’ and Orange Revolution offers a good example, reflecting as they do the persistent desire to see progress towards (liberal Western) democracy. 82 Not only were these reflected back and forth onto each other, as the Orange Revolution and ‘Arab Spring’ were compared to each other and the collapse of the USSR, but the comparisons were

in The new politics of Russia
Amikam Nachmani

beleaguered Azeris little more than token support. Suleiman Demirel, Turkey’s President, defended the decision, by explaining that to intervene in the dispute would reawaken the age-old Muslim–Christian conflict, with Muslim Turkey cast as the villain of the piece. “All our contacts with Europe would be disrupted,” he claimed. 43 Efforts have been made to improve Turkey’s freedom of expression and association. The media has been reformed – some of the alterations in accordance with the standards of Western democracies – by abrogating the monopoly of

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

rules of Western democracy. As for the Kurds, Washington, despite its basic endorsement of the principle of Kurdish nationalism, branded the PKK a terrorist organization, backed the idea of a Turkish security zone in northern Iraq, and approved, tacitly, of Turkey’s search-and-destroy missions against the PKK bases in the area. It also sanctioned, and perhaps even took part in, the Turkish operation to capture Abdalluh Ocalan, an operation that skirted dangerously close to the edges of international law. But, perhaps, above all, it was the

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Geoffrey K. Roberts
and
Patricia Hogwood

stability. The fascist regimes in Italy and Germany during the inter-war period revealed the vulnerability of European political systems to non-liberal, arbitrary government. Following the Second World War, political elites have looked to constitutionalism as a means of strengthening their democratic systems. There is a growing belief that all government acts must conform to constitutional law to be considered legitimate. Western

in The politics today companion to West European Politics