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Elisha P. Renne

in cases. By the end of November 2008, Nigeria had 758 confirmed cases, the most cases of wild poliovirus in the world. 46 Yet political decisions made at the end of 2008 also contributed to a significant improvement of polio vaccination efforts in Nigeria the following year. In October 2008, Dr Muhammad Ali Pate, was appointed as the new NPHCDA executive director. Not only was Dr Pate an experienced

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Pacifist feminism in the IAPA
Heloise Brown

‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ 8 Awakening women: pacifist feminism in the IAPA T he IAPA had a women’s auxiliary almost from the date it was founded, as between 1881 and 1882 a number of women in the Peace Society’s Auxiliary attempted to formally attach their organisation to the IAPA. When matters reached a head in April 1882, the Auxiliary split, with one organisation – the Women’s Peace and Arbitration Auxiliary (WPAA) – attaching itself to the IAPA, the other reconstituting itself and remaining with the Peace Society. The social purity politics and

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Feminist journals and peace questions
Heloise Brown

examination of each shows how these fragmented approaches to peace questions could come to form part of a wider analysis of the connections between women’s subordination and the sanctioning of physical force. The feminist journals discussed here catered for a variety of political perspectives and all included coverage of international issues affecting 26 feminist journals women. The Englishwoman’s Review took a ‘classic “bourgeois” constitutional feminist’ position, although under the editorship of Caroline Ashurst Biggs radical liberal ideas and concerns were often

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Open Access (free)
Better ‘the Hottentot at the hustings’ than ‘the Hottentot in the wilds with his gun on his shoulder’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

distintegrate or disappear: they produced a flourishing African peasantry in parts of the eastern Cape; and, as we shall see in chapter seven, the Xhosa posed some challenge to the White rulers of the colony when they began to qualify for the vote and organise politically to make use of that vote. By the 1830s, the British authorities who had taken over the Cape from the Dutch found themselves trying to govern a

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
‘Australia for the White Man’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

century, settler governments in the Australasian colonies built on their foundation years in their treatment of Indigenous political rights in their political systems. The seven colonies – united by the Pacific region’s proximity to numerous non-European societies, and apprehensive of in particular Chinese immigration and the imperialisms of non-British European powers – contemplated federating into one

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

for granted. These competitive periods were more likely to produce a swing to the Right or result in a lower level of political consciousness. In the late 1970s Conservatives had briefly dominated the Union Executive. Ten years later change depended on the ‘Cosmo-ites’, supporters of a shrewd politician, Richard ‘Cosmo’ Hawkes, denounced by his enemies as a closet Tory, whose professed aim was to restore the Union to the average student. Although vowed to a deeply unpopular loan scheme, the Government seemed less obnoxious to students than in Keith Joseph’s day. It

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Stephen J. Kunitz

the slaves who were brought from Africa were members of many different tribes, those differences were vaporized in the crucible of slavery. In contrast, because many Indian tribes, especially west of the Mississippi, have been able to retain land (even if much diminished) since the time of early contact with Europeans, tribal diversity and cultural differences have remained important, as have differences in access to political influence, economic opportunities and services, including health services. One result has been significant regional and tribal differences in

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Saving the White voters from being ‘utterly swamped’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

For the first seventy years of the nineteenth century, British governments had been reluctant to extend their involvement in South Africa beyond the coastal colonies of the Cape and Natal. By the 1870s, however, important economic and political developments in South Africa prompted Britain to act in consolidating its interests throughout the Southern African region. These developments

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Nico Randeraad

international congress primarily to re-introduce the organisational principles to his Italian colleagues. As usual, the foreign conferees showed intense interest in the subject, too, though it was unlikely that any of the delegates had sufficient political clout in their home countries to enforce the wishes of the international community. At one of the meetings, Maestri explained again that in a representative system it was essential for statistics to serve the interests of both the legislative and executive powers. He endorsed a proposal put forward by Pietro Castiglioni, an

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
The International Arbitration and Peace Association
Heloise Brown

problem there could be with the IAPA if the net result was to bring more ‘into the field of Christian work’.2 However, Christianity in itself was not part of its rationale for opposing war. Rather, its principles were based upon: ‘a recognition of the mutual respect and justice between nations, and on broad principles of international polity, the general adoption of which will lead to the substitution of Arbitration for War’. It professed itself to be ‘unsectarian’ and, like the Peace Society, in principle unconnected to party politics. Its objectives were to create ‘an

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’