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, it began to assign to the newly mobilised a role which had previously been reserved for the priesthood. Local preachers were laymen and laywomen, who extended their public identity from their existing familial and occupational roles to include that of the preacher and leader of a congregation in worship. But whilst religious belief and practice may be intense at the start of the twenty-first century, it is both fragmented and a series of minority identities, rather than a comprehensive national identity. The disputes which took place in the

in Cultivating political and public identity
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Emerging sociabilities in Alava, Basque Country

formed by peasant families, organised under a council of neighbours, and structured by age, gender, and kinship. Its corporative character was manifest in socio-religious associations (cofradías) and in the tight control of territory through geographical limits and spatial and social rituals. Freeman (1968) characterised these associations as ‘mass-­feastmeeting-complexes’. As used to be said in the villages, ‘No hay misa sin mesa, y no hay vereda sin colación así como no hay romería sin cura y sin fiesta’ (‘There is no mass without table, no common work without lunch

in Alternative countrysides
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communicate their views on the perfection of the episcopal state, its pre-eminent place within the ecclesiastical hierarchy, the existence of episcopal grace and the extensive authority of prelates, not only to the priests within their congregations but to the episcopate itself. Through informal contacts within their circle of religious associates and through formal publications their ideas passed rapidly into the episcopate to become standard elements of its self-identity. They were also quickly adopted by apologists of episcopacy among the lesser clergy, and by

in Fathers, pastors and kings
The lump-child and its parents in The King of Tars

the lump in order to show how its treatment throws into relief the different configurations of paternity and maternity, of gender roles and of religious politics put forward in a range of re-tellings. Three kinds of critical analysis are put forward, progressively narrowing the focus of study. Building on Lillian Herlands Hornstein’s impressive scholarship, I begin by studying analogues of KT drawn from medieval chronicles; these analogues allow an appreciation of features shared by the different narratives. The second section turns to the Auchinleck text of KT

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
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The reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702

was clear: imposition of the ‘heaviest punishment to make the Pain hold a proportion with the offence’ should be enacted against blasphemers. Citing Leviticus 24.24, he insisted, that ‘The Blasphemer was by God’s immediate Command, stoned to death, by the whole congregation, because the sin and scandal were Publick, so was the punishment to be’. English law allowed the same treatment. Reciting the cases of Bartholomew Legate and Edward Wightman, who were both burnt for heresy, Gailhard insisted that such ‘Ishmaels’ might be ‘delivered into the Civil Magistrate

in Republican learning
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Mirrors of French ideals?

episcopal literature, and notably within Godeau’s publications during the 1650s. He strongly endorsed the principles of the 1625 Déclaration and incorporated this attitude into his hagiographic works, by adapting the examples of Charles Borromeo and Augustine of Hippo to contemporary France. In his Vie de S. Augustin, published in 1652, Godeau examined the life and vocation of this early church bishop. In seventeenth-century France, religious caused ‘occasions of trouble and dispute’ to a degree unknown in the primitive church: ‘The auxiliaries do not wish to recognise

in Fathers, pastors and kings

chap 4 22/3/04 12:53 pm Page 109 4 Ecclesiastical monarchy or monarchies? Why did the French episcopate prove so tenacious in opposing the regulars’ calls for independence through the seventeenth century? Like the bishops’ quarrels with the curés, these were crises of authority in which the episcopate fought to assert its disciplinary supremacy over the religious orders. Yet the struggle between the bishops and the regulars was just one manifestation of a much larger complexity: the place of the episcopate in the church’s governing hierarchy. Not only did

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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reading of the Torah, and he also blesses all the people during the course of the prayer service on festival days, reciting verses from Numbers 6:24–26 in a highly impressive ceremony in which he stands facing the congregation, raising his hands in blessing. 30 Based upon Leviticus 25:17: ‘You shall not oppress each man his fellow’— interpreted in b. Bava Metzi’a 58b to refer to ‘oppression through words.’ 31 Aliyah—the rite of a member of a Jewish congregation being called to read from the Torah during religious services. 32 Gershom ben Judah, Teshuvot Rabbenu

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
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Cautionary tales and oral tradition in early modern England

. Reduced to the status of a proscribed religious minority and deprived of access to the mainstream press, Catholicism made ingenious use of ephemeral speech as ‘a supple and evasive means of popularising dissident ideas’. It proved, as Alison Shell compellingly argues, ‘exceptionally willing to exploit orally transmissible media’.80 Just as stories of the supernatural judgements visited upon popish persecutors had assisted in sustaining the morale of secret Protestant 187 The spoken word congregations in the mid-1550s, so did tales of the terrible punishments which

in The spoken word
The tragedy (and comedy) of accelerated modernisation

the world today’. 122 eih ch-7.P65 122 26/3/03, 15:14 Millenarianism and utopianism 123 We in Ireland are also caught up in these world historical processes of modernisation and experiences of modernity, all be it modulated and mediated by our own histories, our own insertion into the global political economy, and our own particular experiences as members of different socio-economic classes, religious and political persuasions, as men and women, as urban and rural dwellers, as native born and as newcomers, as Travellers and minorities. Furthermore, the

in The end of Irish history?