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Jewish emancipation and the Jewish question

were designated a separate ‘nation’ within their various host societies, permitted to have their own religious and legal institutions, and yet subjected to all manner of occupational, fiscal, residential and political discriminations. The subordinate status of Jews had left most Jews in poverty, vulnerable to external persecution from the Church, state and people, and dependent internally on their own rabbinical and financial elites. The Enlightenment project

in Antisemitism and the left

as sixteen.21 Many of these interim bishops were members of religious orders or chapters or diocesan administrators and thus experienced in ecclesiastical affairs. Yet the fact remains that the practice of confidence was an institutional abuse which allowed aristocratic control of church temporalities and a secular view of the episcopal office to be maintained. It is fair to say that the status of bishops was in this period lower than at any other time during the ancien régime. However, this assessment relates to just one aspect of the episcopal office as it was

in Fathers, pastors and kings

and the director but relies on others to carry out the technical roles, to those in which the ethnographer does everything, participating in the action, directing the film, as well as carrying out all the technical roles. An interesting example of the first case, in which the ethnographer appears as a leading character in a film directed by others, is Koriam’s Law and the Dead who Govern , released in 2005. This film concerns the ideas and practices of the Kivung Association, a religious and

in Beyond observation

tumultuous changes resulting from the religious reforms that began to take effect in the late 1530s. In pre-Reformation devotional practices, the relationship between worshipper and God was extensively mediated through visual representations depicting Christ and the saints. Medieval English churches were ‘filled’ with images of the saints, the embellishment and upkeep of which was paid for by worshippers. 21

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama

kept an eye on him from the moment they began to suspect his religious deviation. According to his account, at age thirteen he had a dream filled with awesome grandeur and extremely significant, to which he attributes the beginning of his transition to Christianity. He saw a king approaching him and giving him an impressive white horse, an elaborate belt, a bag of silk, and heavy gold coins. The king preferred him above all the members of his own nobility, rode in his company, and even ate with him from the same plate. This dream made a deep impression upon him, but

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Communities, circumstances and choices

. Brown, Zola. A Life (New York, Macmillan, 1996). 11 See, especially, P. F. Anson, The Religious Orders and Congregations of Great Britain and Ireland (Worcester, Stanbrook Abbey Press, 1949) and D. A. Bellanger, The French Exiled Clergy in the British Isles after 1789 (Bath, Downside Abbey, 1986). 12 A. Bellanger, ‘France and England. The English Female Religious from Reformation to World War’, in N. Atkin and F. Tallett (eds), Catholicism in Britain and France since 1789 (London, Hambledon, 1996), pp. 10–11. 13 See especially C. Holmes, John Bull’s Island

in The forgotten French
Charity and the economy of makeshifts in eighteenth-century Britain

and learnt to read, write and cast accounts; girls also learnt writing and the ‘four rules of arithmetic’.6 Boarded boys were set to work winding worsted in 1776, some decades later than the general trend in charity schooling, to inure them to labour and early rising. While religious instruction and economic utility were emphasised in most eighteenth-century charitable endeavours, other aspects 104 The poor in England were particular to the Welsh School.7 Within a couple of years of its foundation the governors, who referred to themselves as ‘the Directory’, had

in The poor in England 1700–1850

customs of those who generally left no documentary traces apart from bald statements about their births, marriages and deaths in parish registers and necrologies. The tribunal which inquired into the misconduct of Giorgio Moreto, ‘Swarthy George’, was one of some forty Italian branches of the Roman Inquisition, responsible to the Holy Office created in 1542 and the Congregation of the Index of 1571. The ecclesiastical judges of the Inquisition functioned with the collaboration, sometimes grudgingly and sometimes enthusiastically given, of the lay authorities in the

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
The Fowlers and modern brain disorder

‘self-made’ was in tension with the religious idea of ‘self-culture’, introduced to the American public by the Unitarian theologian William Ellery Channing and then spread through the writings of nineteenth-century transcendentalists and progressives, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and James Russell Lowell. Channing defined self-culture as the ‘care which every man owes to himself, to the unfolding and perfecting of his nature’, and noted that Americans held the ‘means of improvement, of self-culture, possessed no where else’. 40

in Progress and pathology
Open Access (free)

be found in the most extravagant display of women's ball gowns. In public life, whether economic, religious, or political, dress is a constituent part and construction of how people see themselves, and how they see the other members of their society – a vision of a world which that dress at the same time constitutes. It is not only the prominent and the dominant who come in bright, or not so bright, feathers. The construction, cultivation, and display of external form is a part of all social life, and is an inherent dimension of the cultivation

in Cultivating political and public identity