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A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

2 Patterns and practices of everyday resistance: a view from below T What is everyday resistance? he informalities, ambiguities and contradictions that peacebuilding runs into reflect the political nature of the process. These become visible when examined from the everyday practices of the actors involved. In IR the everyday has become synonymous with the makings of actual subjects in their most quotidian roles (Autesserre 2014; Hobson and Seabrooke 2007; Mitchell 2011b; Neumann 2002). This is not so much a new field of study, as it represents a common call

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

4 Claims to legitimate authority and discursive attacks We don’t believe in the authorities anymore. When you say … ‘there, that’s the new administrator, everyone may clap but with a certain mockery …’ Him also, what is he going to do? (Peasant Union Member (no. 151) 2010) We could wonder about the role of that whispered language within the political system of unanimity. It is, to my mind, a way of softening the overwhelming and restrictive official language in order to make it more bearable; it is an antidote. Irony and humour are the weapons of the powerless

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

few chapters, the use of coercion is more effective in repressing dissent than in protecting the population. In this context, both historically and in the present, popular resistance is not only important but constitutive of political order (Maindo Monga Ngonga 2004; Renton et al. 2007; Young 1994: Ch. 1). In the context of the present war, popular classes have been exposed to new demands of the global market, changes in security interests in Africa at the end of the Cold War and the reconfiguration of the global security agenda. So, while the war has transformed

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

practices and patterns that constitute it presently and historically. It argues that peacebuilding as statebuilding is based on the same practices of coercion, extraction and claims to legitimacy that define state-making, and that these practices are the ground for resistance. Resistance reflects not just issues of bad governance, or a rejection of internationally led agendas that impinge on a local culture. It reflects the experience of war, poverty, and political processes as intolerable and humiliating. However, as Eric Wolf states, social science cannot be restricted

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
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Resistance and the liberal peace: a missing link
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

before; but they continue because we need a political negotiation, a land reform, jobs and a real democracy where people can participate and not just be put in jail. (Union Paysanne pour le Développement Intégral Representative 2014) T hese statements reflect some important sentiments of those who have experienced war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Great Lakes since the 1990s.1 They imply an interpretation of the conflict as stemming from several overlapping economic and political issues that cannot be reduced to a military issue, a problem of

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making