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Simha Goldin

kept an eye on him from the moment they began to suspect his religious deviation. According to his account, at age thirteen he had a dream filled with awesome grandeur and extremely significant, to which he attributes the beginning of his transition to Christianity. He saw a king approaching him and giving him an impressive white horse, an elaborate belt, a bag of silk, and heavy gold coins. The king preferred him above all the members of his own nobility, rode in his company, and even ate with him from the same plate. This dream made a deep impression upon him, but

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Communities, circumstances and choices
Nicholas Atkin

. Brown, Zola. A Life (New York, Macmillan, 1996). 11 See, especially, P. F. Anson, The Religious Orders and Congregations of Great Britain and Ireland (Worcester, Stanbrook Abbey Press, 1949) and D. A. Bellanger, The French Exiled Clergy in the British Isles after 1789 (Bath, Downside Abbey, 1986). 12 A. Bellanger, ‘France and England. The English Female Religious from Reformation to World War’, in N. Atkin and F. Tallett (eds), Catholicism in Britain and France since 1789 (London, Hambledon, 1996), pp. 10–11. 13 See especially C. Holmes, John Bull’s Island

in The forgotten French
Charity and the economy of makeshifts in eighteenth-century Britain
Sarah Lloyd

and learnt to read, write and cast accounts; girls also learnt writing and the ‘four rules of arithmetic’.6 Boarded boys were set to work winding worsted in 1776, some decades later than the general trend in charity schooling, to inure them to labour and early rising. While religious instruction and economic utility were emphasised in most eighteenth-century charitable endeavours, other aspects 104 The poor in England were particular to the Welsh School.7 Within a couple of years of its foundation the governors, who referred to themselves as ‘the Directory’, had

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Brian Pullan

customs of those who generally left no documentary traces apart from bald statements about their births, marriages and deaths in parish registers and necrologies. The tribunal which inquired into the misconduct of Giorgio Moreto, ‘Swarthy George’, was one of some forty Italian branches of the Roman Inquisition, responsible to the Holy Office created in 1542 and the Congregation of the Index of 1571. The ecclesiastical judges of the Inquisition functioned with the collaboration, sometimes grudgingly and sometimes enthusiastically given, of the lay authorities in the

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
The Fowlers and modern brain disorder
Kristine Swenson

‘self-made’ was in tension with the religious idea of ‘self-culture’, introduced to the American public by the Unitarian theologian William Ellery Channing and then spread through the writings of nineteenth-century transcendentalists and progressives, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and James Russell Lowell. Channing defined self-culture as the ‘care which every man owes to himself, to the unfolding and perfecting of his nature’, and noted that Americans held the ‘means of improvement, of self-culture, possessed no where else’. 40

in Progress and pathology
Open Access (free)
Rodney Barker

be found in the most extravagant display of women's ball gowns. In public life, whether economic, religious, or political, dress is a constituent part and construction of how people see themselves, and how they see the other members of their society – a vision of a world which that dress at the same time constitutes. It is not only the prominent and the dominant who come in bright, or not so bright, feathers. The construction, cultivation, and display of external form is a part of all social life, and is an inherent dimension of the cultivation

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)
Frank O’Hara
David Herd

, ‘had gone out of our lives’ (H, 43). At O’Hara’s funeral Larry Rivers told the congregation, ‘Frank O’Hara was my best friend. There are at least sixty people in New York who thought Frank O’Hara was their best friend’ (H, 138). To gauge the significance of this, in In Memory of my Feelings: Frank O’Hara and American Art, Russell Ferguson passes on the received wisdom that the New York avant-garde of the 1950s and early 1960s consisted of no more than 300 people. The premature death of any significant artist is always mythologized, as the composer Morton Feldman

in Enthusiast!
Nicola McDonald

anthropomorphic head, is instructive. The Turk’s Head no longer serves an active commemorative function (few will identify the allusion to the Crusades or the Siege of Vienna), but it is no less key to an understanding of the complex racial and religious bigotry that underlies dominant Western ideology. Stigmatised as an object of both fear and fascination, the Muslim, reduced to a symbolic turban or a grinning face,13 can be eaten. His supremacy in the medieval Holy Land, his incursion into the heart of Renaissance Europe, his threat to American hegemony is contained

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Open Access (free)
La colonie Française
Nicholas Atkin

French opinion was the arrival of religious orders – for instance the Benedictines of the Abbey of Solesmes, who resettled on the Isle of Wight until 1922,6 and the Jesuits who made a temporary home in Jersey. These had been expelled after the formation of Radical anticlerical Cabinets, which were determined to protect the Republic from the perceived clerico-military threat, incidentally the same governments that sealed the Anglo-French entente of 1904, which soothed recent colonial resentments. Remarkably much the same observations about the anonymity of the French

in The forgotten French
Elite beliefs about witchcraft and magic
Alison Rowlands

and clerics were council appointees whose religious affiliation and educational and social background had to be acceptable to the councillors for them to acquire their positions in the first place, and their advice was frequently followed by the councillors in specific witchcraft cases. It thus seems reasonable to assume that the beliefs about witchcraft they expressed in their opinions reflected a similar spectrum of beliefs held by the councillors themselves. We can also establish the broader framework of elite beliefs about beneficient witchcraft and popular use

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany