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Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

crash of 2007–8 and the implementation of a swathe of austerity policies. 20 Although the specific problems that faced the Irish state in recent years were different, there was little new in the scale and nature of these challenges. Irish co-operators at the end of the nineteenth century looked to empower and improve the quality of life for a population integrated within a globalised economy. Irish society back then was porous, responsive to change, and despite having a reputation for being economically backwards until the 1950s, proved an innovative one

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

austerity. At the start of the twentieth century, the existence of a robust co-operative movement in Ireland that articulated a distinct vision for national development mattered. The IAOS saw its primary role ‘to render self-help effective through organisation, in the working lives of the agricultural population’. 14 The co-operative model became embedded in Ireland despite a wide range of challenges and shaped the conduct of agricultural business. A political economy of co-operation formed an important strand of a wider political culture by the

in Civilising rural Ireland
Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell

agenda. According to Levy, 81 this can be distilled into four main lines of action: imposing the costs of austerity on the well to do; giving a progressive twist to neo-liberal ideas; targeting tax relief at average- and low-income groups; and channelling scant resources to highly visible, progressive projects. First, partly as a result of the Maastricht EMU criteria, the Socialist Party continued the

in The Third Way and beyond
Jonathan Colman

Cousins’. This departure ‘represents a visible split in the leadership of the Labour Party … and raises prospects of a more intensive intra-party opposition’. One of the key issues ‘will, of course, be the kind of support Wilson receives from the trade union segment of the Labour Party’. Much of the ‘burden of his austerity programme falls upon the average consumers, and the wage-freeze portion hits directly at the working

in A ‘special relationship’?
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

public utilities such as the coal mines, railways and gas and electricity supply, as well as policies to cope with post-war reconstruction in a context of severe austerity and adjustments of Britain’s international status during a period when parts of the British Empire were seeking self-rule. Attlee died in 1967. [See also: Beveridge Report*; Potsdam conference*] Auriol, Vincent President of the French Fourth

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Universalism and the Jewish question
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

populist movements. Put this together with the climate of insecurity caused by global financial crashes, state austerity programmes that pathologise the poor, and growing legitimacy problems faced by international institutions, and we may be forgiven for thinking that we find ourselves confronted by a crisis of the universal values that once underpinned our hopes of progress. The emancipatory face of universalism remains very much in evidence – not

in Antisemitism and the left
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

investors increased leverage over the terms of new loans to the region (Alnasrawi 1991: 175; Chatelus 1993: 148, 154–7). The austerity this enabled the IMF to impose for the sake of debt repayment first hit investment levels, then state spending on health and education, food subsidies and state employment. This, attacking the very basis of the ‘social contract’ in Middle Eastern states, sparked ‘food riots’ across the region. Capital, previously exported on a massive scale, was now being re-imported at the cost of debt, concessions to foreign investment and the same

in The international politics of the Middle East
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

, and illustrated Marx: A User's Guide . Bernard Maris, a co-editor, was a member of an anti-globalisation movement called Attac and campaigned against austerity, corporate corruption, tax havens and the arms industry. Being on the left does not mean that one is not Islamophobic but the damaging attacks that have been launched on the journal bring to mind similar attacks on the work of Salman Rushdie after a Fatwa was declared against him in 1989. 20

in Antisemitism and the left
Continuities and contradictions underpinning Amitai Etzioni’s communitarian influence on New Labour
Simon Prideaux

individual rights. Rather, the opposite is believed to be true: ‘ strong rights presume strong responsibilities ’. 35 All-in-all, Etzioni’s is an argument that is convinced by the feeling that a commitment to the community can counter the pursuit of self-interest and unbridled greed. Commitment would not represent a life of self-sacrifice, altruism or austerity

in The Third Way and beyond
Thomas Robb

IMF and implement austerity measures upon the British economy. It is certainly apparent from Callaghan’s papers that he believed Britain’s importance as an ally to the US to be sufficient enough to force the US to restrain the demands of the IMF. Callaghan’s appeals to the likes of Ford, Kissinger and Scowcroft demonstrated this line of argument, yet this ultimately failed to deliver the kind of results he wanted. His investment in close US–UK relations failed to materially manifest into political capital when it was most needed during the IMF crisis. It is

in A strained partnership?