dialectical relationship emerged
also in Lamming. This was so most noticeably in his insights on the
language shared, and synthesised, by both Caliban and Prospero. 26 For the language
which Prospero gave to Caliban created new possibilities for thought
Prospero has given Caliban Language; and with
it an unstated history of
Caribbean fiction does carry a profound consciousness of historical
time. For an overview, see Nana Wilson-Tagoe, Historical Thought
and Literary Representation in West Indian Literature
(Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1998), and more
specifically, Supriya Nair, Caliban’s Curse: George Lamming
and the reconfiguring of history (Ann Arbor: University
Wellesley College, April 1991. I never claimed, contrary to Paget
Henry’s caricature of my argument, that James’s
celebration of Western civilisation ‘has its roots in
Eurocentric tendencies that James inherited from Marxism’:
Paget Henry, Caliban’s Reason: introducing Afro-Caribbean
philosophy (New York: Routledge, 2000), p. 48. I know better
than that and made it clear in my
empire 1918–1964 (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1993). The character of James’s anti-imperialism is debated in
many of the works cited in other notes here, and in Anthony Bogues,
Caliban’s Freedom: the early political thought of C. L.
R. James (London: Pluto, 1997) and John Gaffar La Guerre,
The Social and Political Thought of the Colonial
. Muldrew, ‘Credit and the courts: debt litigation in a seventeenth
century urban community’, Economic History Review, 46 (1993).
J. Lawson, Letters to the Young on Progress in Pudsey Over the Last Sixty
Years (Chichester, Caliban, 1977).
J. Burchardt, ‘Rural social relations, 1830–50: opposition to allotments for labourers’, Agricultural History Review, 45 (1997).
T. Sokoll, Essex Pauper Letters, 1731–1837 (Oxford, Oxford University
Antony and Cleopatra and visual musical experience
theatrical language describing the dramatic world. This has been recognized
in part by Frances Ann Shirley, who notes that ‘musical sounds […] create the
illusion of marching armies off stage’ in a number of Shakespeare’s plays. She
traces the particular meanings that certain musical and non-musical sounds can
convey – how ‘[a] flourish, for example, adds an air of dignity and increases
our excitement’, or how ‘the words of Caliban and Barnadine before they enter
not only create anticipation in the audience, but also confirm the unflattering
descriptions of each
fire; Caliban – although he is not a spirit – is associated with
both earth and water. However, Shakespeare’s Tempest does not
really interrogate the nature of spirit: that spirits exist, and that
they are airy and rapid, is merely taken for granted. The characteristics
of spirits, and the nature of their operations in the material world,
are dealt with much more explicitly and in much greater depth in
the song above. This particular alteration to the story would not
seem to be the result any particular enthusiasm for the existence of
spirits on the part of the
Invisibility and erasure in The Two Merry Milkmaids
III.ii.58SD and n. 58SD, and Shakespeare, The Tempest , ed.
Vaughan and Vaughan 1.2.303, n. 303.
See Michael Baird Saenger, ‘The Costumes
of Caliban and Ariel qua Sea-Nymph’, Notes and
Queries , 42 ( 1995 ), 334–6; Gabriel
Egan expands and supports Saenger’s original suggestion that
-Saxon fenland (Oxford: Windgather, 2017).
Quoted by E. Mansel Sympson, Lincolnshire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1913), p. 54; William Shakespeare, King Lear , Act II, scene iv, line 162. On Shakespeare's knowledge and deployment of the fens in his dramas, see Todd Andrew Borlik, ‘Caliban and the fen demons of Lincolnshire: the Englishness of Shakespeare's Tempest ’, Shakespeare , 9 (2013), 21
Kingship’, in The Damned Art: Essays in the Literature of Witchcraft,
edited by Sydney Anglo (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985), pp.
156–81 (p. 161 and note 16).
195 Parry, pp. 265–67.
Witchcraft in Elizabethan drama
benevolent Ariel; Caliban is not characterised as a spirit, despite his
association with earth and water, which neatly complements Ariel’s
association with the ‘superior’ elements of air and fire. If Friar Bacon
and John a Kent are the theatrical case for the defence of magic,
Faustus is the prosecution, and the prosecution seems to have won