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Language, education and the Catholic Church

6 The nation in social practice II Language, education and the Catholic Church The language question Many writers argue that language is one of the distinguishing aspects of a nation. Eugene Hammel, for instance, suggested that in the Balkans, linguistic and religious identification are the primary sources of nationality.1 Attempts to form a codified language for the Southern Slavs were a cornerstone of the Illyrian movement in the nineteenth century and both Yugoslav states tried to enforce a standardised state language as a means of avoiding the potentially

in The formation of Croatian national identity

era of Enlightenment holds true outside educated society. 6 The Catholic Church and state administration were confronted time and again with petitions and queries regarding witchcraft and magic, which contain many differing views and interpretations. The opinions of the acting parties will be the subject of the following discussion, which analyses the intentions of the medical profession and the state administration, the reaction of the Catholic

in Witchcraft Continued
Open Access (free)

:47 Introduction to emigration within the Catholic Church, to which about another fifth to a quarter of eighteenth-century migrants nominally belonged, are more difficult to discern. If Miller’s assertion that the majority of these early Catholic migrants were ‘rootless’ holds true, however, then it seems unlikely that their removal caused their clergy a great deal of practical trouble or mental anguish.8 Outward migration in the nineteenth century was a different matter. By 1815, Ireland’s population had expanded to almost seven million, more than double what it had been only a

in Population, providence and empire
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence

unrelated phrase – ‘British empire’.2 Yet as many historians of Ireland, its diaspora and particularly the Irish Catholic Church have noted, the existence of a peculiarly Irish ‘spiritual empire’ was widely spoken of even as the country’s ports remained choked with emigrants. This concept, normally involving the perception of a special, God-given emigrants’ ‘mission’ to spread the faith in whatever part of the world they settled, is somewhat problematic given the practical limitations explored in chapter three. Nevertheless, as a continually employed explanation of Irish

in Population, providence and empire
Communism, post-Communism, and the war in Croatia

atrocities. The purpose behind this onslaught of subjective and emotive propaganda was clear – it buttressed Serbian arguments that the war was forced on the Serbian people. The Serbian Orthodox Church and its parishioners had been brought to the ‘verge of annihilation’.81 That this work appeared in 1994, after countless attacks on the Serbs in the international press for their destruction of Catholic churches and mosques, was no coincidence. Obviously Serbian churches were destroyed; but such one-sided portrayals were mirror images of Croatian publications. This even

in Balkan holocausts?
A centuries-old dream?

This book assesses the formation of Croatian national identity in the 1990s. It develops a novel framework, calling into question both primordial and modernist approaches to nationalism and national identity, before applying that framework to Croatia. In doing so, the book provides a new way of thinking about how national identity is formed and why it is so important. An explanation is given of how Croatian national identity was formed in the abstract, via a historical narrative that traces centuries of yearning for a national state. The book shows how the government, opposition parties, dissident intellectuals and diaspora groups offered alternative accounts of this narrative in order to legitimise contemporary political programmes based on different versions of national identity. It then looks at how these debates were manifested in social activities as diverse as football, religion, economics and language. This book attempts to make an important contribution to both the way we study nationalism and national identity, and our understanding of post-Yugoslav politics and society.

Open Access (free)

and Two, clergy could influence would-be migrants 235 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 235 15/09/2014 11:47 Conclusion only in the manner of their departure; stemming the flow altogether was beyond even their divinely sanctioned power. Instead, such reports had their greatest impact in acting as grist to the mills of the Catholic Church’s opponents, whether Protestant evangelicals or lapsed Catholic anti-clericals. In another sense, however, the undertones of the Shinnors row illustrate the more favourable consequences of emigration for the Catholic Church. Despite

in Population, providence and empire

death of Beltrán Leyva and the disfiguration of his corpse could also have influenced how people view the afterlife of his soul. Before continuing with this analysis, I have to clarify that the idea of purgatory as a physical place is not part of the Roman Catholic Church’s doctrine; however, gang members (and others) often believe that it is a place, as the noun grammatically indicates. This adds a spatial dimension to the purification process in purgatory, which becomes crucial to the ‘lives’ of the ‘bone-trapped’ souls who cannot leave earth because of their ‘bad

in Governing the dead
Open Access (free)

in this direction in this chapter through an elucidation of the meaning of the pivotal concept invoked throughout the headscarves debate, laïcité – for which the best (if unsatisfactory) translation remains ‘secularism’. Although the word itself did not appear until the end of the nineteenth century, the origins of laïcité are usually traced back to the French revolution, which brutally accelerated a century-long process of autonomisation of the civil government from the Catholic Church. After a century of veiled confrontation and failed compromise between the two

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies

with many groups of women and men as they established hospitals and schools of nursing in Nigeria. Sisters combined religious commitment and medical science to relieve physical and spiritual suffering; indeed, they were bound by strong ties of gender, professionalism and religion. Nuns were strongly affected by the Catholic Church’s emphasis on women’s authority in the home and family; and when sisters ran hospitals and clinics, many focused on maternal care and children. They also recruited women for their religious congregations and engaged women as students in

in Colonial caring