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Barbra Mann Wall

This chapter analyses shifting dynamics within medical missionary work in Nigeria, from support for British colonialism to humanitarianism. It explores Irish Catholic missionaries as nurses, midwives and physicians from c.1937-1970, to the end of the Nigerian Civil War in 1970. It uses unpublished documents to disentangle, although not disconnect, modern missionary work from colonialism. Using gender as a category of analysis it focuses on women’s work during the Nigerian civil war compared to men’s activities, and how the media focused on one but not the other. By giving voice to the “silenced” in history it argues that there was a significant Nigerian presence in relief work during the war, differing from most research which focuses only on the work of whites. Significantly, in the 1960s and 1970s, Catholic mission hospitals became sites for shifts in the understanding of mission during periods of violence and upheaval. As Catholic women renegotiated their place in an emerging decolonised world, complex relationships developed among Irish sisters, Nigerian nuns, priests, Nigerian chiefs and international peacekeepers. Whereas in the 1930s and 1940s, Catholic sisters saw Africa as a fertile ground for converts, over time the Catholic mission tradition liberalised to promote humanitarianism.

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Competing claims to national identity
Alex J. Bellamy

well in the conservative and Catholic women’s groups that sprung up throughout Croatia shortly after the collapse of communism. The re-traditionalisation revolution also fed into the fascist Party of Rights (HSP) programme in the 1990s. Dobroslav Paraga, leader of the HSP, accused Tuœman of being a weak leader and a bad Croat because of his former links with the League of Communists: traditional Croats, we were told, never accepted communism or Yugoslavism. Another concept used by liberal intellectuals to describe social changes in 1990s Croatia was ‘ruralisation’.10

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Open Access (free)
Refugees
Nicholas Atkin

Refugee Committees, and the London reception centres, which were often aided by such charitable bodies such as the WVS, the Catholic Women’s League and the British Red Cross. What is striking is that, as early as June 1940, a number of specifically French organisations were emerging to cater for their own nationals. In part, this reflected a strong sense of patriotic pride, and the impressive organisational skills of a long-established French colony in London. It also signalled that the refugees were about 2499 Chap2 7/4/03 56 2:42 pm Page 56 The forgotten French

in The forgotten French
A British–French comparison
Caroline Rusterholz

, historian Anne Cova has shown the involvement of women, and among them women doctors, in the natalist movement, and she has shown how Catholic women were at the forefront of the interwar development of family policy. 77 However, this position was not shared by all women doctors; Blanchier reported having noticed a slight difference between the answers from female and male doctors, with women tending to be more tolerant of birth control when it came to protecting the individual well-being of a child. She attributed their

in Women’s medicine
Jolien Gijbels and Kaat Wils

Droit des Femmes), this and other politically ‘neutral’ associations were founded, alongside socialist and Catholic women’s organisations. Neo-Malthusianism was marginal within first-wave feminism in and beyond Belgium. The socialist feminist Emilie Claeys was one of the only Belgian pioneers who defended the use of contraceptives in the early 1890s. She associated voluntary

in Medical histories of Belgium
Open Access (free)
Joris Vandendriessche and Tine Van Osselaer

‘philopassionism’ was indeed a Catholic tradition and there was a revitalisation of this medieval idealisation of Christ’s pain in the nineteenth century, this was certainly not the only Catholic view on pain of that time. As scholars as Richard Burton have emphasised, the idealised, voluntary, suffering was a minority calling and many Catholic women dedicated their lives to relieving

in Medical histories of Belgium
Dirk Luyten and David Guilardian

the population on the fringes of the market, 16 options for medical care slowly expanded for the poorer class too. In the second half of the century, the weight of individual philanthropy, such as that of local elites or of upper-class Catholic women’s societies, decreased to give way to large-scale organised forms of philanthropy. As public welfare

in Medical histories of Belgium
George Campbell Gosling

other cases they collaborated with religious organisations, ranging from the Bristol Diocesan Moral Welfare Association and the Waifs and Strays Society to the Catholic Women's League. The hospitals worked with a host of public bodies, including the Unemployment Assistance Board and a variety of municipal committees including on education, health and housing, as well as institutions already bringing together public and voluntary welfare

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Open Access (free)
Servicemen
Nicholas Atkin

admitted that the sanitary arrangements were not too poor ‘considering how deplorably bad the French are in this respect’.82 Kitchens were also primitive. At Haydock, the men cooked in field kitchens surrounded by turf walls, a situation replicated at Arrowe Park where the men prepared meals in ‘gypsy’ fashion. Matters were relieved by the intervention of various charitable agencies. At Trentham, the YMCA and the Catholic Women’s League intervened to set up a series of canteens, and were rewarded with a grant of £200 by the Bishop of Birmingham. Aware of the general

in The forgotten French
Open Access (free)
La colonie Française
Nicholas Atkin

, warned the government from employing, in the sailors’ camps, leading officials of the French colony from the city, many of whom were members of the Catholic Women’s League, as these ladies were ‘suspect’ in their political outlook.214 Such warnings were especially apposite as it was among stranded soldiers and sailors that catholiques avant tout were most active. In July 1940, Castellane, the French chargé d’affaires, urged that Abbé P— , attached to the consulate and the French Church in Leicester Square, should be allowed to visit wounded troops at White City where

in The forgotten French