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Mel Bunce

out of context or manipulated; and at the other end is news content that is 100 per cent false and is designed to deceive (see also Tandoc et al ., 2018 ). None of these different types of fake news are new. The news media have long published exaggerations, false information, propaganda and conspiracy theories, presenting them as truth. In the 1830s, for example, New York Post published a series of articles claiming that life had been found on the moon ( Tworek and Hamilton, 2018 ). Staged and fabricated content was also common during the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The state of surprise
Andrew Monaghan

which amplifies the noise, even to the exclusion of the signal. Conspiracy theories The roles of the KGB and its successor agencies, particularly the Federal Security Service (FSB), offer a broad canvas of historical and ideological conflict, political and commercial intrigue, sex and glamour and accusations of mass murder and international assassination. 58

in The new politics of Russia
Open Access (free)
Mia-Marie Hammarlin

understand this change, which has created greener pastures for fabricated news and conspiracy theories. There is doubtless a need for research geared to contributing to increased knowledge and awareness of the moral issues and problem complexes that follow in the wake of the transformed opportunities for gossip, the spreading of rumours, talk-in-text hybrids, and other types of orality in the digital media environment. It should be added that scandal audiences have been given far too little attention so far. In order to understand mediated scandals in depth, we must

in Exposed
Open Access (free)
Northern Irish fiction after the Troubles
Neal Alexander

more sceptical than McNamee’s of the value or legitimacy of paranoia in the contemporary period, even as they recognise the enduring currency of conspiracy theories for popular understandings of the Troubles: ‘Someone had once quipped to Avery that Northern Ireland divided into two camps, those who believed conspiracy theories and those who thought they were being put around to make us all paranoid.’38 The humorous deflation involved here accords with Avery’s matter-of-fact conviction regarding moral certainties – his favourite biblical quotation is from Romans 14

in Irish literature since 1990
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

. This is not, for the conspiracy theorist, the straightforward hate figure of the left. Rather, it is a character, or more importantly a group, to which all western governments are secretly in hock: unbelievably rich and powerful, and dedicated unswervingly to its own project, which is nothing less than the complete control of the world. Yes: Zionists are basically Spectre. (David Baddiel, ‘Short of a Conspiracy Theory? You

in Antisemitism and the left
Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies, Sukhwant Dhaliwal, Emma Jackson and Roiyah Saltus

-makers we interviewed remarked, ‘while the Treasury might be believed on its growth figures, it will never be believed on its economic impacts of immigration’. A study conducted on belief in conspiracy theories across the UK population found that 55 per cent of people believe the statement ‘UK Government is hiding the truth about the number of immigrants living here’ is probably or definitely true, compared to only 25 per cent believing it is

in Go home?
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

becoming a conspiracy theory in which the back-stage is always the one behind that which is being researched (cf. Dahl’s (1989: 272) argument regarding the testing of theories of minority domination), this study has sought to distinguish the two ‘stages’ of the parties on the basis of the primary orientation of the party literature. Externally oriented literature such as election and party programmes, as well as brochures, were taken as indicators of the front-stage, whereas internally oriented literature such as party papers were seen as indicators of the back-stage. In

in The ideology of the extreme right
Kristóf Gosztonyi

permits are issued, etc. Other aspects of a functioning state are, however, absent. Another difficulty in proving the absence of centralised power is the possibility that an unknown strong man or a grouping of power holders might control events from behind the scenes – a conspiracy theory. Additionally, the politics of the region are full of lies, deceit and confusion. Owing to these difficulties and a general lack of information the evidence presented here is sketchy and is drawn from a variety of sources. Furthermore, a major part of the argument is based on indirect

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
Albanian society and the quest for independence from statehood in Kosovo and Macedonia
Norbert Mappes-Niediek

. Villages frequently lack public places like pubs, mosques, or assembly halls as all social life remains in the family. Neighbourhood is unimportant compared with family links. When an enemy came, villagers in western Europe would gather in the market place; in Albanian villages, there is no such thing. Everybody would seek shelter within their own family walls. It is still amazing how little people know about each other, and this fosters an atmosphere in which suspicions and conspiracy theories flourish. But on the other hand, the family provides for all an individual

in Potentials of disorder
Will Leggett

expansion. This colonises the language and politics of social democracy, which at least used to be about containing capitalism and ameliorating its worst effects. However, those who follow this line grant a vast amount of agency to the political elites who are held to have ushered in this new justification for capitalism, almost to the point of a conspiracy theory. They tend to

in The Third Way and beyond