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Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

6 Creative survival as subversion I Solidarities and creative tactics against ‘conditions of death’1 n the DRC, the exercise and consolidation of state authority does not necessarily imply social transformation or a real commitment of the state to impose itself but, rather, the management of state absences and state presences through a plurality of authorities. Still, the patterns of coercion and extraction that have followed from the 20 years of conflict, with the different state-making and peacebuilding processes, determine the conditions for the

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

one. The hidden transcript runs through Mai Mai militias, justifications for tax evasion and in the undertaking of a myriad of creative survival strategies. Underlying these tactics is a process of de-legitimisation, of advancing alternative agendas and raising political aspirations. These discourses and the political alternatives embedded within them are realised not just in mechanisms of critique and the voicing of aspirations, but in the processes of denial and mitigation undertaken for navigating a context of violence and poverty. 124 Claims to authority and

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

also take the form of subversion, including redefining the ideals 183 Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making embedded in the peacebuilding discourse, using armed groups to protect oneself or mitigating the dominating effects of military rule through negotiation and creative survival. The Scottian claim-regarding practices address elite claims directly. The Certeaunian ‘self-regarding’ practices identify acts that deny or mitigate elite claims indirectly. These acts have the self (individual or collective) at the centre of the action. By using or

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
The Marshall Plan films about Greece
Katerina Loukopoulou

to contain the Soviet Union away from the Mediterranean and Western Europe. Jennings’s and Wallace’s creative choices chime with the wider ideological construct of the time that linked the notions of universalism and internationalism with Greece, a country that in post-Enlightenment Europe stood for the source of such aspirations. For example, UNESCO, upon its establishment in 1945, had adopted a

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Toby Fricker

creative and visual way to tell the story. The communications products to accompany the new reports were produced to target media outlets and conform to the known dispositions of news organisations. 76 A process that Natalie Fenton refers to as ‘“news cloning” that mimics, or indeed matches, the requirements of mainstream news agendas’, but does not mean that aid agencies ‘have managed to change news

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
Resistance and the liberal peace: a missing link
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

by rural communities to provide security; and creative survival practices that range from tax evasion to land reappropriation and the provision of all sorts of social services. Scott has often been criticised on the grounds that intentions are ungraspable, that resistance acts are too ambiguous and ambivalent to serve as a category of analysis and that he excessively simplifies social reality (Hibou 2011a: Ch. 1; Mbembe 2001: 103–8; Ortner 1995; Weaver Shipley 2010: 666). In response to these critiques, which have also concluded that resistance does not exist or is

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

resonates with Africanist critiques seen above (Hibou 2011a; Mbembe 2001: Ch. 3; Mbembe in Weaver Shipley 2010: 666). Because resistance, and especially its intentions, is ambiguous, Ortner proposes to 64 Patterns and practices of everyday resistance account for the multiple ways in which practices can be ‘creative and transformative’, yet be the result of contradictory and mixed intentions (1995: 190–1). By this account, intentions may not be central and may provide a richer account of other aspects in everyday human relations, but doing away with intention undermines

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
The United States Peace Corps in the early 1960s
Agnieszka Sobocinska

recruitment and publicity material, assuring Shriver that applicants were fit for the Peace Corps because they were ‘serious, intelligent, attractive, tactful and durable’. 63 Many letters spoke to hours of thought and creative effort. Dozens of correspondents enclosed insignia, symbols and badges that they had designed for the Peace Corps. 64 One of Senator Henry M. Jackson’s Washington State constituents

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
The management of migration between care and control
Pierluigi Musarò

about what Mezzadra and Neilson call the ‘productive’ and even ‘creative’ functions of the borders, which means the specific forms of ‘order’ they enable within the space they appear to merely circumscribe. 65 As they argue, the ‘encounter’ of a would-be migrant with the border, its crossing, tends to reproduce itself across large parts of that experience and biography, with multiple manifestations of

in Global humanitarianism and media culture