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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

as ‘neo-colonialism’) and led many developing world states to nationalise the assets of foreign-owned multi-national corporations based in their countries. Nationalism: the history of an ideology One might assert that modern history has been directed by the rise, development and spread of nationalism. We can identify a number of stages in the development of nationalism: proto-nationalism; early modern

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
An epilogue
Saurabh Dube

immense isolation of the modern individual, a subject stalking an alienated temporality and a spatial indeterminacy. 15 On the other, Muktibodh’s “intensely self-conscious, anguished poetic voice abandoned the high modernism of Europe and America for experimental, radical, sometimes surreal sequences that draw equally upon the Bhakti tradition of late medieval [early modern] India as upon other

in Subjects of modernity
New stories on rafted ice
Elana Wilson Rowe

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946 (Churchill, 2015). These same whales –​and many other Arctic plants and animals –​are also covered by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (better known as CITES). Scientists Scientific knowledge and endeavour have been intimately intertwined with Arctic states’ pursuit of sovereignty over their own territories. In their examination of scientific debates in early modern England, Shapin and Schaffer famously

in Arctic governance
Jeremy C.A. Smith

social, economic, political and cultural life. Over time, and with each wave, more and more of the world is incorporated into common dynamics. The first wave is synonymous with the Axial Age. In the second wave (1500–​ 1600), Europe’s early modern empires conquered and colonised the Western hemisphere. Indigenous peoples suffered colonial occupation as genocidal conquest and millions of Africans suffered it as the catastrophic slave trade. War and world power were internationalised in the third wave (1750–​1815), with Britain emerging as the premier European force at

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Jeremy C.A. Smith

actively blocked. Migrants were economic agents, whether as labourers, consumers or traders. Bearing and exchanging goods, however conceived, involved exchanging values, especially when exchanges have been in inter-​cultural contexts. The impact of early modern trade can be no less evident than in the example of inter-​ continental dispersion and circulation of species of flora and fauna stimulated by colonialism. But, then again the length and strength of the chains of connection that finance lubricated –​even before the rise of Italian banking –​is surprising

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Entanglements and ambiguities
Saurabh Dube

’s manner of being in the world, namely, narrative.” 66 It is equally worth reflecting on how Braudel’s seminal writings have not only rendered entire regions of the Mediterranean world as islands floating outside the currents of civilization and history, but further cast as ahistorical the sphere of everyday “material culture,” especially when compared with the historical dynamism of early modern

in Subjects of modernity
Open Access (free)
Alan Cromartie

former being located, in the main, in the international church. But from the early sixteenth century onwards, the rulers of many communities were forced to decide for themselves if their dominions should accept or repress some version of Protestant doctrine (almost all serious thinkers held that toleration was unthinkable). This meant the early modern polity was exercising a new kind of power: the power to judge the truth of

in Political concepts
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

his alternative integration scenaria for the future of Europe, he offers a general conceptual justification for applying the terminology of pre-existing forms of polity to the study of contemporary Europe. In particular, he embraces the view that, in the interests of conceptual refinement and historically informed comparisons, 54 Theory and reform in the European Union one has to turn to the past to recapture a more diverse language about political units. Revisiting European history, especially its early modern phase, where the continent witnessed the emergence

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Jeremy C.A. Smith

consubstantial connections in this body of research is based on unequivocally post-​Orientalist perspectives 36 36 Debating civilisations (Katzenstein, 2010a: 16). Moreover, where civilisational analysis continued to work on this problematic –​particularly on Eurasia-​wide processes (Arnason and Wittrock, 2004) –​the balance of connections, divergences and breaks continued to be debated. The opportunity to empirically elaborate relationships between early modern linkages and latter-​day figurations is lost in the absence of comparison of modernities across historical time

in Debating civilisations
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

family members when merchants were abroad; and courts and tribunals that could curb malfeasance. Comparison with Sephardic Jewish and Multani merchants shows that trade networks spanned a spectrum of polycentric to monocentric organisation and insularity. The Armenian network was tightly insular, while the Sephardic one recruited outsiders and incorporated cross-​cultural commerce more readily. Aslanian’s research provides insight into the breadth of merchant networks tied up in early modern long-​distance trade, a breadth too great for the category of ‘trade diaspora

in Debating civilisations