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Elana Wilson Rowe

is particularly prominent in large infrastructure projects, such as the rejuvenation of ports along the Northern Sea Route or renewal of the icebreaking fleet (Moe, 2014). The emphasis on shift work (fly-​in/​fly-​out labour) for new sources of natural resource wealth is an indication of this balancing act –​pursuing regional profit without committing to the development of social infrastructure (Laruelle, 2013; Saxinger, Nuykina and Ofner, 2017). A second issue is the locus of decision-​ making power. Putin’s recentralisation of power from the regions to the

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland
and
Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

discussed further towards the end of the section. In 1959, the Soviet Union’s first nuclear-powered icebreaker – the Lenin – was stationed in Murmansk. Over the following years, a whole fleet of nuclear icebreakers was built.2 The main task of the icebreakers was to escort vessels navigating the Northern Sea Route (i.e. the Northeast Passage), which stretches along the northern shores of the Eurasian continent from the Barents to the Bering Sea. Thus, the icebreaker fleet played an important role – and to some extent still does – in securing the severnyy zavoz, i.e. the

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland
and
Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

times during the period 2005–15 (Bond and Levine 2001). The metallurgical operations of Pechenganickel take place at the company’s plant at Nikel. The plant processes ore concentrates from the mines near Zapolyarnyy and raw materials shipped over the Northern Sea Route (see Figure 6.1) from Norilsk. These shipments started in the late 1968s when local ores began to decline. During the Soviet era, Norilsk Nickel shipped approximately one million tonnes of ore from Siberia to its Kola facilities every year (Kotov and Nikitina 1998b). The shift to a market economy has

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Cameron Ross

governments and 15 other agreements dealing with a variety of issues, such as ‘economic control, budget relations, the mining industry, the fuel and energy industry, the northern sea route, external relations, agriculture, communications, customs, immigration, roads, education, environment and natural resources, and federal development funds’.43 In 1995 Sakha received the colossal sum of 1.3 milliard US dollars for the sale of its diamonds. A sum which was not less than the official budget income of the republic.44 In 1996 the bilateral treaties were widened to include

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia