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Eşref Aksu

normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts has evolved unevenly but appreciably in terms of both objectives and authority, with the shift in the pattern of prescribed functions emerging as one important indicator of this change. Objectives were conceptualised here with reference to four key principles enshrined in the UN Charter, namely peace and security, state

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

authorities The ‘massacres of ’60’ ( madhabih al-sittin ), as they are known in Lebanon and Syria, which started in April and continued until July, were premeditated 22 in the sense that the Maronites were planning an all-out attack against the Druzes, the aim being the creation of a Maronite protectorate under France. 23 The Maronites had been mobilized by their notables and clerics, headed by ‘Awn, the Maronite bishop of Beirut, and prepared themselves with

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

scrutiny. These actors have obvious and substantial bearing on the UN’s objectives, functions and authority vis-à-vis intra-state conflicts. This study will therefore systematically focus on all these actors, though, depending on the case, one may deserve more attention than another. It is nevertheless possible to identify other actors who may be said to exercise lesser but none the less significant

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

A N EXAMINATION OF the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1 should prove especially illuminating for our study in that this mission points to the growing willingness of the international community to involve the UN in intra-state governance. It helps us, in other words, to scrutinise more closely the relationship between the changing

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

in the overall context of intra-state peacekeeping, but also further develop an important element of our argument, namely that the two periods under scrutiny (i.e. the early 1960s and the early 1990s) constituted critical thresholds in intra-state peacekeeping, each with its own particular normative resolution as to the UN’s objectives and authority. We will demonstrate how the interests and normative

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

on the shift from inter-state to intra-state peacekeeping, with the international response to secessionist attempts acting as a bridge between the two. Once the internal dimension of the conflict was made part of the UN’s agenda, as the last part of our analysis will demonstrate, the UN would be given more and more authority to handle the crisis. Even a preliminary reading of the ONUC experience

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Brent E. Sasley

the Palestinian Authority. Finally, the conclusion offers some preliminary thoughts on the usefulness of this addition to security studies in the light of the Middle Eastern context. Political liberalization versus democratization It is necessary first to make a distinction between liberalization and democratization, since they are different

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Author: Eşref Aksu

This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.

Analysing the example of data territorialisation
Andreas Baur-Ahrens

flows. This is of particular interest as ‘the founders of the Internet embraced a design that distrusted centralized control’ (Goldsmith and Wu 2006 : 23). It was ‘the architecture of the network itself that prevented the exercise of hierarchical organised authority, be it in the way of censorship, inequality, or the creation of commercial monopolies’ (Hofmann and Holitscher 2004 : 412, own transl.). Cyberspace was seen by some

in Security/ Mobility
Open Access (free)
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

Slobodan Milosevic in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) to cease and desist from what the former considered to be unacceptable activities in Kosovo province. Further, the FRY was also compelled effectively to cede authority over Kosovo to an international protectorate. NATO thus sits at the nexus of a number of important debates. Perhaps the most controversial concern the nature of its intervention and the circumstances in

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security