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Sequence and the rise of auteurism in 1950s Britain
Erik Hedling

socio-economic, they were at the time mostly discussed and dealt with in aesthetic terms, and we saw eventually the emergence of the European art cinema, a new kind of film, specifically aimed at the literate and professional middle classes. One of the most important European contributions to the film history of the 1950s was, thus, undoubtedly the sudden rise of the auteur, the film director

in British cinema of the 1950s
Open Access (free)
Paul Henley

obligation to address non-specialist audiences did not necessarily result in ‘dumbing down’, but rather could serve as the catalyst for experienced film directors to identify the essence of an issue or set of circumstances so that it could be presented in a readily accessible manner. This is a skill that, proverbially at least, many academics lack. At the same time, the technical standards of broadcast television required craft skills that were far greater than anything most academics could manage by themselves. Although academics like to stress that

in Beyond observation
Open Access (free)
Munich–Rome–Los Angeles, or ‘The last temptation of Ingmar Bergman’
Thomas Elsaesser

commissioned Maddin and Sparks to do a live preview of the film on the festival’s opening night. The plot premise is that immediately after his 1956 success at Cannes (nomination for the Palme d’Or and first prize for poetic humour) with Smiles of a Summer Night (1955), Bergman was enticed to Hollywood, where he was greeted by none other than Greta Garbo herself. One enthusiastic commentator wrote: Ron and Russell Mael’s yarn of the famed film director leaving Sweden for Hollywood is an

in Ingmar Bergman
Ian Mackillop and Neil Sinyard

cross the border in Ken Annakin’s extraordinary Across the Bridge (1957). This is one of the finest of all Graham Greene adaptations, a masterpiece in Mike Leigh’s eyes (see his foreword to Annakin’s autobiography, So You Wanna be a Film Director ), one of Quentin Tarantino’s top ten films, and a British film that, in theme, ambience and atmosphere, even looks ahead to Orson Welles’s noir masterpiece of a year later

in British cinema of the 1950s
Consumerism and alienation in 1950s comedies
Dave Rolinson

research student at the University of Hull, writing a Ph.D. on the television and film director Alan Clarke. I have written articles on documentary and the 1950s Quatermass television serials and films. Although I’m 27 years old, I can easily relate to the puritanical austerity and yearning for escape in my favourite 1950s films because I’ve spent all of those years in Hull. Dave

in British cinema of the 1950s
Peter Cowie

Kubrick wrote in a letter to Bergman: ‘Your vision of life has moved me deeply, much more deeply than I have ever been moved by any films. I believe you are the greatest film-maker at work today.’ 17 Krzysztof Zanussi remarked that ‘Bergman was for me a god. I only came to film-making because I discovered Bergman.’ 18 Paul Verhoeven has noted that The Seventh Seal ‘made me realize that films can be art. It inspired me to become a film director. This is one of the most powerful and significant films

in Ingmar Bergman
Ann-Kristin Wallengren

sounds and the addition of music to produce a narrative style that refers to this historical film style. In Bergman’s oeuvre, we find examples of this silent-film aesthetic even in scenes that are without music. One instance is the famous scene at the beginning of Wild Strawberries in which Isak Borg, played by silent-film director Victor Sjöström, dreams about his death. Nonetheless, music and film without any dialogue or natural sounds create a highly poetic film language, and it seems that Bergman, as a lover

in Ingmar Bergman
Open Access (free)
Ingmar Bergman, Henrik Ibsen, and television
Michael Tapper

The idea that Ingmar Bergman was a bourgeois film director was almost a truism in the Swedish cultural debates of the 1960s and 1970s. Maria Bergom Larsson summarized the contemporary view in the following quotation from her influential book Ingmar Bergman and Society of 1978: ‘He is ideologically tied to a traditional puritan Protestantism and a humanism with deep roots in Western bourgeois culture.’ 1 Although Bergman himself had time and again stated in personal interviews that he was a social

in Ingmar Bergman
Fanny and Alexander in Swedish politics
Erik Hedling

-Swedish film director and author Jörn Donner, claims to know that Bergman voted for Sweden’s liberal party (Folkpartiet) in the 1990s. See Jörn Donner, ‘Ett långsamt farväl till Ingmar Bergman’, Svenska Dagbladet , 14 July 2018, Arts section. 10 Ingmar Bergman, Artiklar, Essäer, Föredrag , edited by Håkan Bravinger, Christo Burman, Jan Holmberg, Maaret Koskinen, Per Stam, and Astrid Söderbergh Widding (Stockholm: Norstedts, 2018), p. 239. 11

in Ingmar Bergman
Open Access (free)
The principles of Observational Cinema
Paul Henley

his manifesto-essay, Colin Young cites with approval the practice of the French New Wave feature film directors, who, having studied classic Hollywood cinema in order to identify the conventions whereby it achieved its effects, then used those same conventions themselves but in a more low-key way, leaving much more to the imagination of the audience. ‘They were not so much unconventional as restrained’, Young comments. ‘They left us space to fill and we participated.’ In his view, this was the goal towards which Observational Cinema film-makers should also be

in Beyond observation