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Richard Parrish

preferences and power of the member states. Moravcsik refined his earlier work on intergovernmental institutionalism by adding to his theory of interstate bargaining an explicit theory of national preference formation grounded in liberal theories of international interdependence (Moravcsik 1991, 1993). Moravcsik employs these two theoretical approaches to test his claim that European integration depends on macro-level interstate bargains negotiated by member states with the aim of managing economic interdependence. Moravcsik treats the key intergovernmental players as

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

many sports, qualification for European competitions is achieved through championship or cup performance. In essence therefore, the pyramid structure implies considerable interdependence between the levels. This ‘open’ model contrasts with the ‘closed’ procedures in the USA where championships are closed and sport is governed by many federations. The European ‘model’ has emerged out of the traditional culture of amateurism in European sport whilst the US ‘model’ represents professionalism. In this respect, European sport has traditionally not been practised as an

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Richard Parrish

implications can still be caught within the scope of competition law. Third, do sports rules have the potential to prevent, restrict or distort competition in the EU? Rules which have a minor impact on competition are not subject to EU competition law. Nevertheless, as in any other sector, horizontal and vertical sporting agreements do have the potential to be caught within the scope of competition law. Of course competition in the sports sector is not necessarily the same as in other sectors due to the unique interdependence within the sector. This leads to a supplementary

in Sports law and policy in the European Union