aspects are unavoidable,
though especially in the nineteenth century, military physicians were
loath to accept women as nurses. Still, the image of the nurse during
warfare served as an important reflection of nationalidentity and citizenship. The nurses’ position in defending the Empire was idealised
Rima D. Apple
and their presence had significant rhetorical power, especially in the
‘home country’. At the same time, these women were providing vital
medical aid, often under dire circumstances. With the chapters in this
book, we see a much more complex picture
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg
, mass immunisation should not be considered a
neutral practice; it requires assessment in its relation to state power,
nationalidentity and the individual's sense of obligation to self and
What's new in this book?
While historians have explored the
evolution of public health in different parts of the world, and of vaccination
as a key component, few have located vaccination in relation to twentieth- and
Reconstruction of Warriors: Archibald McIndoe, The
Royal Air Force and the Guinea Pig Club (Barnsley: Greenhill Books, Kindle
edition, 2010); Julie Anderson, War, Disability and Rehabilitation in Britain:
‘Soul of a Nation’ (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2011).
7 Most literature on women’s work in the Second World War offers analyses of
the post-war return to the home and hearth. See, for example, Gail Braybon
and Penny Summerfield, Out of the Cage: Women’s Experiences in Two
World Wars (London: Pandora, 1987); Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War?
Nursing work and nurses’ space in the Second World War: a gendered construction
, Passing and the Special
Operations Executive in the Second World War (Manchester: Manchester
University Press, 2007), 13.
51 Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War? NationalIdentity and Citizenship in
Britain, 1939–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
52 Penny Summerfield, ‘Women and war in the twentieth century’, in June
Purvis (ed.), Women’s History: Britain, 1850–1945 (London: UCL Press,
1995); Penny Summerfield, Reconstructing Women’s Wartime Lives: Discourse
and Subjectivity in Oral Histories of the Second World War (Manchester:
Melissa Dickson, Emilie Taylor-Brown, and Sally Shuttleworth
(eds), Cultures of Neurasthenia from Beard to the First World War (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001), 199–217; Laura Goering, ‘Russian nervousness: neurasthenia and nationalidentity in nineteenth-century Russia’, Medical History , 47:1 (2003), 23–46; Arthur Kleinman, Social Origins of Distress and Disease: Depression, Neurasthenia, and Pain in Modern China (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990); Janet Oppenheim, ‘ Shattered Nerves’: Doctors, Patients, and Depression in Victorian England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 79
, Interpretations, Meanings
and Environments (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1995) 294. See also Jeanne Moore,
‘“Placing the home in context’, Journal of Environmental Psychology 20
21 Penny Summerfield and Corinna Peniston-Bird, ‘Women in the firing-line:
The Home Guard and the defence of gender boundaries in Britain in the
Second World War’, Women’s History Review 9, 2 (2000): 232.
22 Penny Summerfield, ‘Gender and war in the twentieth century’, The
International History Review 19, 1 (1997): 6.
23 Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War? NationalIdentity and Citizenship
advantage’, Nursing Mirror (23 March
1946): 424; Anonymous, ‘Living out and living in’, Nursing Mirror (2 March
4 Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War? NationalIdentity and Citizenship in
Britain, 1939–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, Kindle edition),
5 Sue Bruley, Women in Britain since 1900 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,
6 Margaret Hadley Jackson, ‘Causes and significance of the dwindling family’,
in Sir James Marchant (ed.), Rebuilding Family Life in the Post-War World:
An Enquiry with Recommendations (London
: Verso, 2003).
See Anne Rodrick, Self-Help and Civic Culture:
Citizenship in Victorian Birmingham (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004) for
such an approach to the franchise and citizenship. On a similarly passive
view of interwar citizenship, see Sian Nicholas, ‘From John Bull to
John Citizen: Images of NationalIdentity and Citizenship on the
scrutinised and questioned.21 Benedict Anderson’s formulation of
nationalidentity developed in Imagined Communities is particularly
useful in exploring Fothergill’s observation further, and in framing
the wider significance of the diary format that the chroniclers of the
Lucknow garrison employ.22 In an era in which Anderson argues
that the bonds of horizontal comradeship are consistently being
secured by the global reach of print capitalism, the colonial diary
represents a way in which women were able to engage with and join
the imperial endeavour
Press, 2004), www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/
36251 (accessed 8 December 2014).
85 Dame S. Brown, Press cuttings, Ideas, 20 December 1906.
86 Summers, Angels and Citizens, p. 197, p. 218; E. Taylor, Wartime Nurse: One
Hundred Years from the Crimea to Korea 1854–1954 (London: ISIS,
2001), p. 69.
Nurses during the Anglo-Boer War
87 Summers, Angels and Citizens, p. 203; J. Lee, ‘A nurse and a soldier: gender, class and nationalidentity in the First World War adventures of Grace
McDougall and Flora Sandes’, Women’s History Review, 15:1 (2006), 84;