–Israeli one. As mentioned previously, no deterioration was recorded in the bilateral relations during the short-term government of Erbakan. Also, raising the Muslim common nexus was greeted with little enthusiasm by the secular and military elite of Turkey.
It is interesting to note the remedy proposed by Khaled bin Sutlan bin Abed al-Aziz, a scion of the Saudi royalfamily, son of the Saudi Defense Minister, and proprietor and publisher of the Al-Hiyat newspaper. Thriving economic interactions – the basis for the intensive Turkish
traditional sectarian, tribal and family assabiya to create cores of trusted followers around the leader similar to royalfamilies in the monarchies.
(3) In their search for legitimisation, state elites made use of sub- and supra-state identities to make up for thin popular identifications with the state itself. In the monarchies patriarchal loyalties and Islam were the favoured formula; in the republics Pan-Arabism, the official ideology, was buttressed by the exploitation of sub-state loyalties, whether it was Tikriti solidarity in Iraq or that of
developed under the auspices of the European concert system and
justified by the need to maintain international peace and order
allocated recognition of (European) states based on rule by a member
of a legitimate royalfamily. Newly independent countries (e.g.
Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece and, later, Norway) were enjoined to adopt
a princely leader from a European
, foreign policy decisions are taken consensually by the King and senior princes of the royalfamily, producing caution and continuity in policy, deeply reflective of Saudi Arabia’s character as a status quo power. The muted competition which exists within the royalfamily also encourages a risk-averse attempt to appease – ‘bandwagon’ between – conflicting pressures from the West and the Arab world. Thus, the preferences of the ‘Suderi Seven’ – notably King Fahd, Defence Minster Prince Sultan and Interior Minister Prince Nayef – for a Western alliance and Western
or are Gulf-based, oil-linked or banking firms. Rent and indirect taxation such as import duties relieve most states of dependency on the bourgeoisie for tax revenues, which might give the latter the leverage to demand a share of power, and business is often quite dependent on the state (for contracts, licenses, etc.). Business lacks the institutionalised access and clout it enjoys in developed capitalist states: in the authoritarian republics, the military and bureaucracy and in the monarchies, royalfamilies dominate foreign policy making. In more liberal states
Belgian society, his education was conducted half in French, half in
Flemish. The reigning King Leopold’s clumsy attempts at intervening in
politics during the inter-war period caused resentment against the royalfamily in Belgium, and, after the Second World War, they went into exile in
Switzerland. Leopold was only allowed to return to the throne in 1950 on
condition that his son Baudouin take on most of his powers, becoming Prince