The importance of ‘speaking witnesses’ in Dutch sexual crimes investigations and trials, 1930– 1960
confessed. Police also
interviewed a number of witnesses, who had encountered the distraught
victim and returned her to her employers’ home. More extensive
questioning of the victim and the suspect followed, after which the
suspect was examined by a psychiatrist, convicted and sentenced to one
year in prison. 1
While many cases of sexualviolence tried between 1930 and
1960 by the
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this
volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of
violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities
across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications
of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the
study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical
significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the
myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and
non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the
Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex
than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance.
Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale
violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum,
ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was
privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early
modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent
forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in
activities not officially classed as war.
the pervasive sexual double standard.
Caine documents Fawcett’s vehement opposition to sexual immorality
among those in public life (particularly her disapproval of Harry Cust
and eventual hounding of him out of office), which mirrored her concern
with the sexual conduct of the inmates of the concentration camps.32 She
was greatly concerned with male sexual immorality, but less interested
feminist responses to the anglo-boer war
in the effects of war, and as a result it appears that she condemned sexualviolence but took a more lenient view of the physical
(ry): narratives of rape in the seventeenth century’, Gender
and History, 7 (1995), 378–407.
21 G. Walker, ‘Rereading rape and sexualviolence in early modern England’, Gender
and History, 10 (1998), 1–25.
22 Ibid., 3.
23 Ibid., 4–5.
24 For a validation of the use of psychoanalytic theory in the interpretation of early
modern subjectivities, see L. Roper, Oedipus and the Devil (London, 1994); some
reservations are offered by S. Greenblatt, ‘Psychoanalysis and renaissance culture’, in P. Parker and D. Quint (eds), Literary Theory / Renaissance Texts (Baltimore,
1986), pp. 210
. Jamaica’s wealthiest early nineteenthcentury planter, Simon Taylor, for example, was a successful planter because he
refused to overwork his slaves, but he was far from being a ‘kind’ master. He knew
that he depended on the slave trade and was distraught when Britain abolished that
trade in 1807. He did not punish slaves directly himself but hired overseers who he
knew would treat enslaved people firmly, ignoring any claim from enslaved people
that they were punished excessively and that they experienced significant degrees
of sexualviolence from rapacious whites. As
: Routledge , 2015 ).
Stephanie Wright, ‘“Facts that are
Declared Proven”: Francoism, Forensic Medicine, and the
Policing of SexualViolence in Twentieth-Century Spain’,
paper given at the conference ‘Forensic Cultures’,
Utrecht University, 26–28 August 2021. See also Stephanie
health in the world. It has projects on a range of issues such as
AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception, abortion, family
planning, maternal mortality, genital mutilation, women’s and
children’s health and sexualviolence. The centre’s
strength is the dynamic interaction between multidisciplinary
science and development cooperation and the implementation of
99 UN Doc. A/49/342, para. 48.
100 Ibid., para. 49.
101 Ibid., para. 51.
102 Ibid., para. 53. A more purposive approach to interpretation is often taken by
international human rights bodies.
103 There are also a Defense Counsel Unit and a Judicial Support Services Unit.
104 See K. D. Askin, ‘Sexualviolence in decisions and indictments of the Yugoslav
and Rwandan tribunals: current status’, American Journal of International Law, 93
(1999), 97–100; H. Charlesworth and C. Chinkin, The Boundaries of International
Law – a Feminist Analysis (Manchester
relieve themselves. While this was going on the men from whom one
wished to extract denunciations were put to the ‘question’ [tortured].60
The reference here to using women as an instrument to place pressure
on Algerian males leads to the issue of rape, a widespread practice by
the French army that was long concealed on both sides, by ex-soldiers,
the army authorities, women victims and the FLN. The occultation
in French society of sexualviolence during the war, a practice that
most radically contradicted the self-proclaimed ‘civilising mission’
of the army, changed