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Thomas Vaisset

On 25 September 1911 the battleship Liberté exploded in Toulon harbour. This tragedy is just one of the many disasters that the French fleet suffered at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries and also represents the peak of these calamities, since it is undoubtedly the most deadly suffered by a French Navy ship in peacetime. The aim of this article is to study how the navy managed this disaster and the resulting deaths of service personnel, which were all the more traumatic because the incident happened in France’s main military port and in circumstances that do not match the traditional forms of death at sea.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
The fate of Namibian skulls in the Alexander Ecker Collection in Freiburg
Reinhart Kößler

This article explores the history of the Alexander Ecker Collection and situates it within the larger trajectory of global collecting of human remains during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This is then linked to the specific context of the genocide in then German South West Africa (1904–8), with the central figure of Eugen Fischer. The later trajectory of the collection leads up to the current issues of restitution. The Freiburg case is instructive since it raises issues about the possibilities and limitations of provenance research. At the same time, the actual restitution of fourteen human remains in 2014 occurred in a way that sparked serious conflict in Namibia which is still on-going four years later. In closing, exigencies as well as pressing needs in connection with the repatriation and (where possible) rehumanisation of human remains are discussed.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to the case of Serbian archaeology
Monika Milosavljević

(Pruitt, 2011). Introduction of culture-historical approach into Serbian archaeology Let us therefore look more closely at one particular example of Serbian archaeology. During the first half of the twentieth century the discipline was predominantly marked by the ideological domination of a single authority who actively suppressed scientific debate, but also the development of new scientists stemming from emerging generations and dissenting interpretations of the past. This authority was Miloje M. Vasić, a classical archaeologist educated in Berlin and Munich in the

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Antonín Salač and the French School at Athens
Thea De Armond

-, French- and Greek-led excavations in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: ‘[Y]ou would be given authorisation without difficulty and I would help you financially… there would be, doubtless, important discoveries to be made there. Have no illusions about the value of new excavations; hardly any of the first order remain, while the questions on Samothrace are very important.’42 On Picard’s recommendation, then, Salač chose Samothraki. At first, he attempted to leverage Greek connections to access the site. Salač sought advice as to how he might secure an

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology

The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines; primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology, anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest to the general reader.

Open Access (free)
Clusters of knowledge
Julia Roberts and Kathleen Sheppard

during the twentieth century. By examining Fleck’s theory in detail, Milosavljević appraises the advantages and disadvantages of using this philosophy in the history of archaeology. As a consequence of its history as part of the socially conservative Yugoslavia and its isolation from Western Europe during the latter half of the twentieth century Serbian archaeology, Milosavljević argues, has a history dissimilar to that of the discipline in the rest of Europe. While these factors led to dogmatism within local archaeological communities Milosavljević looks at how

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
The first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58
Arthur Weststeijn and Laurien de Gelder

culminated in the Marshall Plan. In the archaeological community in Rome, this spirit of international collaboration had an especially profound impact upon the institutional framework of the foreign schools, the various academies and institutes of non-Italian academic communities that had been established in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries in the context of the nationalist competition over Rome and antiquity. Immediately after the end of the Second World War, two important organisations were created that instead focused deliberately on collaboration and

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The key role of the Italian antiquarian market in the inception of American Classical art collections during the late-nineteenth century
Francesca de Tomasi

antiquities in the United States could have caused – and eventually did cause – in Italy. The purpose of this chapter is to describe a particular historical period, which runs from the late 1880s to the first decade of the ROBERTS 9781526134554 PRINT.indd 47 03/12/2019 08:56 48 Communities and knowledge production in archaeology twentieth century, when American collectors and museums began to express interest in purchasing antiquities from the Mediterranean area and particularly from Italy. During this first period, though, the Americans timidly approached the Italian

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
James Breasted’s early scientific network
Kathleen Sheppard

, and would do, for generations of diggers trained by Petrie, Breasted’s time on site made him a professional Egyptologist possibly more than his doctorate did. Petrie’s goal in training excavators was to instill in them his methods of scientific archaeology. He was wedded to measurement, quantification, and careful extraction from the ground of as many artifacts as possible. While a PhD was important for the language study that Breasted wished to do, in order to be a real Egyptologist at the turn of the twentieth century he needed field experience and Petrie was the

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology: the case of Adolf Furtwängler
Ulf R. Hansson

success can be ascribed to his small but close-knit group of devoted students and followers, some of whom came to be highly influential during the first half of the twentieth century: Paul Arndt, Ludwig Curtius, Hermann Thiersch, Friedrich Hauser, Johannes Sieveking, Heinrich Bulle, Walter Amelung, to name just a few. Brunn had made Munich an important centre for the study of especially ancient sculpture; his student Furtwängler transformed it to the very heart of so-called Stilarchäologie and Kopienkritik, building an outstanding archaeological library, cast and

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology