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, meaning that they contribute to the art of testing theories developed elsewhere and sometimes reflecting other experiences and often serving other purposes. These reasons may explain why an inductive, exploratory approach has been somewhat neglected. For the purpose of theorising the CFSP I have, as mentioned above, selected two manuals in theorising (Rosenau and Durfee 1995 ; van Evera 1997 ). I use Rosenau and Durfee’s rules

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

expectation embodied in the Preamble to the Basic Law and in its concluding Article (Art. 146), which provided for its termination when such a constitution for a unified Germany came into force. In fact the Basic Law not only lasted for 41 years until the reunification of Germany; it was then retained as the constitution for reunified Germany (with only minor revisions and adjustments) by decisions of the legislatures of the two

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
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. 27 April 1972 First use of the constructive vote of no confidence (Art. 67 of the Basic Law) to try to replace Chancellor Brandt by Barzel (CDU) fails by two votes. 6 May 1974 Brandt resigns as Chancellor following the arrest on 24 April of Guillaume, a GDR spy who worked on Brandt’s staff. Brandt remains as SPD leader. 12–14 January 1980 Federal Green party formed at a congress in Karlsruhe

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

-border participation in a common discourse. All this makes the Arab world, in Noble’s (1991: 56) words, a ‘vast sound chamber’ in which ideas and information circulate widely. In addition, similar food, marriage and child-rearing practices, music and art are recognisable region-wide. Extended family ties frequently crossed borders and cross-border immigration has been constant: in the 1950s there were major flows of Palestinian refugees; since the 1970s labour migration to the Gulf oil-producing states has been substantial. Niblock (1990) argues that the interests of the separate

in The international politics of the Middle East
Is the CFSP sui generis?

agreement on the initially controversial issues. Of these three styles of conflict resolution, the two latter were perceived to have the greatest integrative impact, with conflict resolution based on the ‘upgrading of common interests’ representing ‘the true contribution to the art of political integration’ (Haas 1961 : 369). It should be noted, in this context, that neofunctionalists did ascribe a key role to central institutions

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
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Danzig (now Gdánsk, Poland) and went to art school. Best known as an author, Grass received numerous prizes for literature and the arts, notably the West German Group 47 Prize 1959; the literary prize of the Association of German Critics 1960; the Thomas Mann prize 1996 and the Nobel Prize for Literature 1999. His best known works are the fictional Tin Drum (1959); From the Diary of a Snail (1972); and the political

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

elections, the government of Turkey’s Prime Minister, Bulent Ecevit, launched an anti-torture reform campaign. 8 Many Europeans, particularly those on the left who are influential in EU governments, feel goodwill toward Ecevit, who is considered to be “clean” when it comes to corruption issues, and who believes in social democrat ideas. Before he entered parliament as an Ankara deputy and becoming a politician (1959), Ecevit has been a pioneer of labor rights in his country. He has also been an English translator who studied art, history, Bengali and Sanskrit at London

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

murderers, rapists and thieves.” 15 The celebrated Greek author, Nikos Kazantzakis, swore that for the Greeks freedom means purging themselves of the corrupt Turkish traits acquired under Ottoman rule. 16 The Greek Consul in Montreal took umbrage at a series of lectures held in a local university entitled: “Turkey: Two Millenniums of Art and History,” protesting that the Turkish nation “had settled in the region much later” and that most of the discoveries cited were a part of the Greek cultural heritage. 17 Pangalos’s sacking in February 1999

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
A view from below

, its subjects, objects and means. Here the notion of claim-regarding acts and selfregarding acts will be explained more extensively. As a guide to the subsequent empirical chapters and in response to a debate that places the complexity of resistance in terms of its existence or not, violence or not, its oppositional nature or not, the last section provides a reworked account of resistance, discussing how some of its elements can be gradated to better grasp its complexities. The art of theorising resistance As already mentioned, the turn to resistance in the liberal

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making

global. Whether resistance is exercised discursively, violently or, as will be explored in this chapter, as a form of survival, it is conditioned by the way authority is asserted along the axis of state absence and presence. Nonetheless, in this interstice, solidarity, and not just coercion and extraction, is an important element of the everyday political landscape. Creativity, as the art of la débrouille,4 is defined here as the use of imagination, solidarity and reciprocity to produce anything that allows or improves survival. Although a rumba song may have captured

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making