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Douglas Blum

2504Chap2 7/4/03 12:38 pm Page 29 2 Contested national identities and weak state structures in Eurasia Douglas Blum Since their very inception, many of the Soviet successor states have been beset by ethnic violence, crime, trafficking – in arms, drugs and people – terrorism, poverty, pollution and migration.1 Most have also faced deeper problems of legitimacy and ideological drift. To a significant extent these pathologies can be traced back to the delegitimisation of the entire Soviet world view, and the lack of any viable replacement. The existence of an

in Limiting institutions?
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

). They relied on grassroots community actors, classic figures of humanitarian work or development ( Olivier de Sardan, 2005 ): chiefs, women, elders and youths seen as legitimate actors, able to both represent and influence the ‘community’ – that is, to be intermediaries of community engagement between the intervention and local populations. This article shows how both the legitimacy of these actors embodying the response and eventually the intervention itself was contested

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Bert Ingelaere

was not one of identity or even of gradual continuity: there was a difference in kind. An essential change marked the installation of the gacaca courts after the genocide. The legislation delineated a modernised gacaca system that incorporated three fundamental principles, and these defining features affected the actual functioning of the gacaca practice. First, those suspected of genocide and crimes against humanity were to be prosecuted in parallel courts according to the crime committed. Ordinary courts would try the people presumed to be responsible for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

for discussion from the outset. We suggest adopting a version of the Chatham House Rule, where ‘participants are free to use the information received, but neither the identity nor the affiliation of the speaker(s), nor that of any other participant, may be revealed’ ( Chatham House , n.d.). This is particularly important in encouraging participants to share sensitive information without fear of it being broadcast, with implications for security and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

Introduction How we understand violence is key to how we conceptualise every single political category. We know nothing of claims to democracy, security, rights, justice and human development without attending to its underwriting demands. But what if the ways this understanding was framed rested upon highly contestable assumptions and political claims? We know violence is a complex phenomenon that continues to defy neat description. And we know it is poorly understood if reduced to actual bodily assault. Violence is an attack upon a person’s dignity, sense

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

changing network connections and disconnections. The overlap here with neoliberalism’s necessarily ignorant subject is returned to below. Importantly, the pure factuality of a post-humanist existence casts doubts on the distinction between a lived reality and a wider world, a distinction that is central to knowledge and the narrative of history. Without this separation there is no space, as it were, for a political commons of contrasting life-chances, contestation and critique that is essential if we are to successfully share the world with Others

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Rodney Barker

autonomy of others, or subordinating their identity to one's own. The absence of empirical universals does not block the making of ethical judgments – it makes them possible. Interests and identity It may be that the politics of the twenty-first century will increasingly become a series of contests, often bitter and violent, over natural resources: water, oil, minerals, and land capable of producing food. In a world approaching or entering a time of limited resources and continued population growth, the contests for food, water, and fuel could become a dominant element

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

religion and their political repercussions. To do this, it uses the concept of the state of exception to identify a zone of indistinction that is inherent within a number of political projects deriving legitimacy from religion. Much like the discussion of turath in the previous chapter, it is concerned with how the collapse of religion into politics and politics into religion creates a zone of indistinction, along with contesting the relationship between ordnung and ortung that transcends the traditional understanding of political organisation. In this zone, regimes are

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
From idealism to pragmatism (1984–2002)
Bruno Villalba and Sylvie Vieillard-Coffre

. In a quarter of a century, the Greens have had the opportunity to try out a number of organisational approaches and to test various electoral strategies and to develop novel internal practices based on their own particular motivations and identity. Gradually, however, they have been forced to accept a dose of political reality and adapt their membership practices in the interests of electoral success. In carrying out our organisational, electoral and ideological analysis, our aim is to explore how the Greens have tried to maintain a coherent identity while facing

in The French party system
Staging class aboard the omnibus
Masha Belenky

existing social hierarchies. At the same time, the omnibus’s potential as a socially diverse space provided an ideal setting for the performance of class identity at a time when it was continuously being negotiated and contested. In addition, the very mobility of the omnibus symbolically embodied the potential of social mobility, as the vehicle literally traversed differently classed neighbourhoods in Paris, offering the modest classes the possibility of circulation through parts of the city previously unavailable to them. Indeed, urban space played a central role in

in Engine of modernity