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Towards a union or not?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

The European Union’s dilemma 125 7 The European Union’s dilemma: towards a union or not? From its humble beginnings, [the Roman Empire] has grown so much that it is now suffering under its own size. (Titus Livius)1 Summary In March 1999 the European Commission, the European Union’s executive branch, resigned under accusations of fraud, nepotism and mismanagement, leading to intensive soul-searching as to what could be the right form of management for the EU. How could the democratic aspects of the emerging entity be enhanced? How could democracy be improved

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Peter D.G. Thomas

III’s concept of himself as an honest and moral man contributed to his strength of character, but that was the sole political consequence of his maternal upbringing. His tutor Lord Bute taught the young Prince to revere the constitution as established by the Revolution Settlement. Political liberty in Britain, that phenomenon so widely admired in Europe, was the result of a system of checks and balances between the executive, headed by the monarch, and the legislature, embodied in the two Houses of Parliament, with the added safeguard of an independent judicature.7

in George III
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

5 THE POLITICS AND POLITICISATION OF DISABILITY Introduction On 22 May 1922, Dai Watts Morgan, MP for the Rhondda valleys in south Wales, described the bitterness felt by permanently injured miners in his constituency to his honourable colleagues in the House of Commons. He outlined in uncomfortable detail their long struggle to receive a level of compensation that allowed a decent standard of living: In no case where [the miners] have been totally disabled for life have they received the maximum of £l a week. Such men, when they meet us from day to day or from

in Disability in industrial Britain
The Peace Society and women
Heloise Brown

‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ 4 ‘The antagonism of sex’: the Peace Society and women1 D uring the second half of the century there was a declining emphasis upon the importance of Christianity within the peace movement. The Peace Society had developed by the 1870s into a political and pragmatic movement that employed, albeit on a limited basis, liberal and non-absolutist arguments against war. However, it simultaneously sought to control the contributions of women, and to restrict the role of feminism within the movement. This is particularly noteworthy

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Open Access (free)
Pacifism and feminism in Victorian Britain
Heloise Brown

the century also shows that many of its supposedly absolutist members could strategically shift between the absolutist ‘peace at any 9 ‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ price’ argument and the non-absolutist point of view. There was less tolerance, however, of feminist politics: the Peace Society’s women’s auxiliary was founded in 1874 and its activities were subjected to strict control in an attempt by the Peace Society’s Executive Committee to distance it from any connection with the feminist movement. A number of radical peace movements were formed in

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

, who was appointed in the early 1980s: as David Richardson remembers, he ‘combined infinite patience, strong left-wing conviction and sound business sense, and became a much respected and valued confidant to successive Union executives’. Two issues, however, did prove both delicate and controversial. The new arrangements imposed on the University itself a duty to ensure that the Union observed charity law and did not use public money for purposes not relevant to the well being of students, including political campaigns and demonstrations. ‘I do not see it as the role

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Open Access (free)
The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

and Switzerland and the UK itself. The differences with the EEC were stark: no political ambitions, only free trade among the members; no common customs barrier vis-à-vis third countries; a limited staff with no executive missions or competencies; and the exclusion of agriculture.3 However, hardly was the ink dry on the 1960 Stockholm Convention creating the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), when the United Kingdom began to reconsider. A number of uncomfortable truths were becoming evident. The United Kingdom was no longer a world power, neither politically

in Destination Europe
Nonconformist religion in nineteenth-century pacifism
Heloise Brown

‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ 3 ‘Conspicuous’ philanthropists:1 nonconformist religion in nineteenth-century pacifism T he role of nonconformist religion in the early feminist movement has been widely acknowledged. From the Unitarian Caroline Ashurst Biggs, to the Quaker Priestman and Bright family networks, feminist politics developed in significant part within the context of nonconformity. It was much the same for the peace movement. Two issues were key to religious perspectives on peace in the nineteenth century: one was Quaker theology and the

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Organizing principles, 1900–1919
Katie Pickles

As Livingstone notes, ‘the idioms of political and moralistic evaluation were simply part and parcel of the grammar of climatology’. 23 Environmental suitability was used to justify the racial hierarchies such that the Northern European races were suited to Canada. As Marilyn Barber has written: [T]o the northern races were assigned the

in Female imperialism and national identity