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Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

, 1990 : 11). When faced with Trump, Xi Jinping, Orban, Erdogan, Putin, Assad, Duterte, non-liberals all, how can the argument for neutrality be successful? They see opponents not as legitimate competitors protected by a set of institutional rules that limit the scope of conflict but as threats to be eliminated. Chantal Mouffe differentiates ‘the political’ from ‘politics’: the political is the sphere of existential conflict over the nature of the state where the most basic institutions of the system itself are fought over ( Mouffe, 2005 : chap

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

trade unions have not dominated the Labour Party lies in the ‘playing of different roles’ in a system of functional differentiation (Minkin 1991: 26). Along with the ‘rules’, role is a central organising concept in Minkin’s work. A role comprises ‘a cluster of norms that applies to any single unit of social interaction’ (see Haas and Drabek 1973: 110–1). In other words, the role of, say, a trade union member of the NEC comprises the various norms and conventions attached to it. Role theory posits that role-holders will behave in accordance with role requirements – as

in Interpreting the Labour Party

the utility functions of different consumers does not imply complete convergence of their preferences and wants. One of the most common trends observed in consumption is the growing differentiation, or even individualisation, of consumers’ choices as their income grows. Thus we have to acknowledge that as new objects of consumption are created there are forces leading both to the convergence and to the divergence of individual ranking orders. The previous considerations imply that the creation of a radical innovation cannot be stimulated by existing demand. If

in Innovation by demand
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viability of democratic arrangements within and across pre-established borders. Whatever the lessons stemming from the process of bringing together a number of democratic governments under the organisational logic of a larger management system, the work at hand will have made a contribution if it offers an opportunity to communicate the major concerns underlying the evolutionary nature of European governance and its functionally structured subsystems. Such a task represents, above all, a pragmatic challenge, confronting, on the one hand, the transformation of

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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A cognitive perspective

knowledge diffusion and creation. We opposed the two paradigms as alternative ways of differentiating food networks, providing ‘functional’ versus ‘identity’ food, but emphasised that the globalisation of agrofood networks was combining governance institutions related to those two paradigms. My intention here is to relate these cognitive frameworks to the discussion of the economic approach of quality. References Akerlof, A. G. (1970), ‘The market for lemons: quality uncertainty and the market mechanism’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84, pp. 488–500. Allaire, G. (1995

in Qualities of food
Structuring self-made offers and demands

States and their politicoadministrative systems? We might point to a set of trends from the Brussels arenas which need to be analysed in terms of their potential effects on national systems. Of particular relevance are: • The dynamic evolution of new and refined treaty provisions leading – in a typical pattern – to an ever-increasing set of communitarised frameworks for policy-making: para-constitutional communitarisation with a growing role for all Community institutions. • The subsequent widening of the functional scope of integration: sectoral differentiation

in Fifteen into one?

sense (innovation), but that perception of goods changes, and along with this our sense of ‘what is the same as what’. Hence markets are not stable structures if only because our anthropology of things is not a stable structure but an evolving and conflictual cultural dynamic. Moreover, economic actors – today functionally differentiated into institutions such as advertising, brand consultancy, design – may place the conjoint redefinition of goods and markets at the very centre of market practices: marketing, for example, is specifically dedicated to altering

in Market relations and the competitive process
The restructuring of work in Britain

‘powerless state’ to call globalisation into question (Weiss, 1998; Hirst and Thompson, 1996) – essentially favouring internationalisation as an explanatory device. What both positions overlook and obscure is the representation and reproduction of globalisation, in large part through the debates taking place within and across national capitalisms. A central source of the diversity and contestedness of globalisation is the differentiated meanings generated through the webs of power that constitute competing forms of capitalism. In chapter 2 I discussed the use of Polanyi

in Globalisation contested
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Potentials of disorder in the Caucasus and Yugoslavia

behind territories, equipped with titular nations, territorial bureaucracies, territorial media, proto-democratic institutions, such as parliaments (soviets), and an ethno-territorial elite that was ready to take over this legacy. In the case of Yugoslavia and the USSR, these borders thus formed a template for status conflicts. Other residues of empire are not territorial, but functional (Rubin and Snyder 1998: 6). These include military organisations, economic networks of supply and production, networks of party or business nomenclature or parts of bureaucracies that

in Potentials of disorder
Analysing two arenas over time

politico-administrative set-up in order to strengthen their problem-solving capacity? Several actors would then have to mobilise energy and attention in order to play a game in an arena which offers more effective instruments for solving problems. For this purpose they have to gain additional material knowledge, procedural skills and political sensitivity. National actors have to enlarge their channels for action and their style of interaction. Existing machineries will at the same time increase their functional differentiation and their co-operation mechanisms. The ‘One

in Fifteen into one?