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Editor: Bill Schwarz

Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things—new music, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This book explores the intellectual ideas that the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that, for more than a century, West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. Chapters discuss the influence of, amongst others, C. L. R. James, Una Marson, George Lamming, Jean Rhys, Claude McKay and V. S. Naipaul. The contributors draw from many different disciplines to bring alive the thought and personalities of the figures they discuss, providing a picture of intellectual developments in Britain from which we can still learn much. The introduction argues that the recovery of this Caribbean past, on the home territory of Britain itself, reveals much about the prospects of multiracial Britain.

Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence

5 The spiritual empire at home: emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence The idea that mass migration from nineteenth-century Ireland created an Irish ‘empire’ has had enduring appeal. It proved a rare source of pride during depressed periods in independent Ireland, particularly the 1940s and 1950s, and provided the basis of an evocative title for at least one popular version of the Irish diaspora’s story as late as the turn of this century.1 In the latter context especially, ‘Irish empire’ can appear simply a wry play on a far more common and not

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
The clergy and emigration in principle

1 Talk of population: the clergy and emigration in principle Migration from nineteenth-century Ireland, no less than migration from any other society, was driven primarily by an economic imperative. Whether attracted by the promise of a better life in Britain or the New World, or feeling compelled to leave by a lack of opportunity at home, most Irish emigrants determined their course based on a rational assessment of their own and their family’s best economic interests.1 Accordingly, as Professor David Fitzpatrick has eloquently observed, ‘for its opponents as

in Population, providence and empire
The Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire

Through a study of the British Empire's largest women's patriotic organisation, formed in 1900 and still in existence, this book examines the relationship between female imperialism and national identity. It throws light on women's involvement in imperialism; on the history of ‘conservative’ women's organisations; on women's interventions in debates concerning citizenship and national identity; and on the history of women in white settler societies. After placing the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire (IODE) in the context of recent scholarly work in Canadian, gender and imperial history, and post-colonial theory, the book follows the IODE's history through the twentieth century. Chapters focus upon the IODE's attempts to create a British Canada through its maternal feminist work in education, health, welfare and citizenship. In addition, the book reflects on the IODE's responses to threats to Anglo-Canadian hegemony posed by immigration, World Wars and Communism, and examines the complex relationship between imperial loyalty and settler nationalism. Tracing the organisation into the postcolonial era, where previous imperial ideas are outmoded, it considers the transformation from patriotism to charity, and the turn to colonisation at home in the Canadian North.

Open Access (free)
Empire, migration and the 1928 English Schoolgirl Tour

strongly connected to migration. Avril Maddrell argues that the British school curriculum, for geography in particular, played a part in encouraging migration. The 1928 Schoolgirl Tour took place in the context of school texts that, Maddrell suggests, imparted information about different parts of the Empire and linked to migration through the travel of schoolchildren. 8 The

in Female imperialism and national identity
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914

argued that nursing practice, education and policy were established and consolidated in the metropole before being exported to the colonies by British nurses, and as a consequence, professional nursing developed independently in each of the colonial outposts. However, cases like that of ‘Nellie’ Gould illustrate that nursing practice was equally constituted on the peripheries, and that a complex network of nursing ideas existed within the British Empire, fuelled and enhanced by the mass migration of nurses between various colonial locations. Ellen Julia Gould (known as

in Colonial caring
The churches and emigration from nineteenth-century Ireland

The book knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland - mass emigration and religious change - and aims to provide fresh insight into both. It addresses the churches' responses to emigration, both in theory and in practice. The book also assesses how emigration impacted on the churches both in relation to their status in Ireland, and in terms of their ability to spread their influence abroad. It first deals with the theoretical positions of the clergy of each denomination in relation to emigration and how they changed over the course of the nineteenth century, as the character of emigration itself altered. It then explores the extent of practical clerical involvement in the temporal aspects of emigration. This includes attempts to prevent or limit it, a variety of facilitation services informally offered by parish clergymen, church-backed moves to safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity all over Europe, and should act as an inspiration to the modern cleric. Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith.

Emigration and sectarian rivalry

and against it during its lifetime. In a sense, therefore, the controversy can be seen as a distillation of wider clerical attitudes: many Protestant and Catholic conceptions of migration and how it might affect their churches are present here, albeit often in their most extreme form. This section will explore them. The new religious movement had its immediate roots in the rise of Irish evangelicalism in the late eighteenth century, and began in earnest in the 1820s when a section of Church of Ireland clergy, encouraged by the spectre of Catholic Emancipation

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)

succeeded in breaking down that intimidating number by establishing broad patterns of who departed and when, where from and where to, and the gender and class balances amongst them. They have documented and contextualised the experiences of individual migrants as gleaned from thousands of surviving letters and memoirs.2 Consequently we know a great deal about ‘the Irish diaspora’ and its often profound impact on the countries to which it spread. Yet the great blind spot of migration history is the effect a significant national diaspora has on the sending society.3 After

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)

future agenda. Demographic strategies We might start with one of the coping strategies that informed the original economy of makeshifts concept – migration and demographic realignment. Historical demographers have in the last two decades been busy exploding key myths about the propensity of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century people to move and their reasons for doing so. While early commentators such as Arthur Redford lumped most poor migrants together as ‘subsistence migrants’ caught in an inexorable drift towards towns, the work of Pooley and Turnbull in particular

in The poor in England 1700–1850