‘self-made’ was in tension with the religious idea of ‘self-culture’, introduced to the American public by the Unitarian theologian William Ellery Channing and then spread through the writings of nineteenth-century transcendentalists and progressives, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and James Russell Lowell. Channing defined self-culture as the ‘care which every man owes to himself, to the unfolding and perfecting of his nature’, and noted that Americans held the ‘means of improvement, of self-culture, possessed no where else’.
Missionary Sisters of Our
Lady of the Holy Rosary (Holy Rosary Sisters) and the Immaculate
Heart of Mary (IHM), Mother of Christ Sisters. The first two began
as Irish congregations, or orders, whereas the latter is a religiouscongregation of Nigerian women. The focus on missionaries’ viewpoints
provides insight into a neglected aspect of the post-colonial era in
sub-Saharan Africa, the decolonisation and independence periods
and what happened to healthcare during violence and massive displacement of people.
Through their religiouscongregations, Catholic sisters worked
By the twentieth century, the very nature of the hospital was
changing. Founded as religious refuges for the sick, they became modern centres
of research and treatment as care gave way to cure. 53 The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
were important years in a longer period of change, seen by Paul Starr as the
moment of the hospital's ‘scientific redemption’. 54 One consequence of this
transition was that the traditional ‘patient narrative’ was