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The Fowlers and modern brain disorder

‘self-made’ was in tension with the religious idea of ‘self-culture’, introduced to the American public by the Unitarian theologian William Ellery Channing and then spread through the writings of nineteenth-century transcendentalists and progressives, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and James Russell Lowell. Channing defined self-culture as the ‘care which every man owes to himself, to the unfolding and perfecting of his nature’, and noted that Americans held the ‘means of improvement, of self-culture, possessed no where else’. 40

in Progress and pathology

Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary (Holy Rosary Sisters) and the Immaculate Heart of Mary (IHM), Mother of Christ Sisters. The first two began as Irish congregations, or orders, whereas the latter is a religious congregation of Nigerian women. The focus on missionaries’ viewpoints provides insight into a neglected aspect of the post-colonial era in sub-Saharan Africa, the decolonisation and independence periods and what happened to healthcare during violence and massive displacement of people. Through their religious congregations, Catholic sisters worked

in Colonial caring

By the twentieth century, the very nature of the hospital was changing. Founded as religious refuges for the sick, they became modern centres of research and treatment as care gave way to cure. 53 The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were important years in a longer period of change, seen by Paul Starr as the moment of the hospital's ‘scientific redemption’. 54 One consequence of this transition was that the traditional ‘patient narrative’ was

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48