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Semiramis and Titania
Lisa Hopkins

The accession of first Mary Tudor and then her younger sister Elizabeth I to the throne of England brought with it iconographic and mythopoeic problems as well as political ones. This chapter explains the strong association between Semiramis and Titania. It begins with Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene and Robert Greene's The Scottish History of James the Fourth. The chapter then moves through the anonymous Locrine and William Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus and A Midsummer Night's Dream, and culminates in Thomas Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, which associate Semiramis with fairy lore. In A Midsummer Night's Dream, a complex network of ideas associated with the figure of Semiramis is used to critique rather than celebrate the agendas of Elizabeth. Ireland is a surprising and apparently previously unnoticed subtext of A Midsummer Night's Dream.

in Goddesses and Queens
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New perspectives
Editor: Lisa Hopkins

Bess of Hardwick was one of the most extraordinary figures of Elizabethan England. She was born the daughter of a country squire. By the end of her long life (which a recent redating of her birth suggests was even longer than previously thought) she was the richest woman in England outside the royal family, had risen to the rank of countess and seen two of her daughters do the same, and had built one of the major ‘prodigy houses’ of the period. While married to her fourth husband, the earl of Shrewsbury, she had been gaoler to Mary, Queen of Scots, and her granddaughter by her second marriage, Lady Arbella Stuart, was of royal blood and might have been succeeded to the throne of England. This wide-ranging collection, which draws on the recent edition of her correspondence, brings out the full range of her activities and impact. It contains a biography, analysis of her language use, consideration of the roles of her servants and the management and nature of her households (including the complex and allegorical decorative scheme of Hardwick and its famous embroideries), and a new appraisal of the relationship between Bess and her granddaughter Arbella.

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Lisa Hopkins

This chapter reads Bess’s life and achievements in the light of a poem written about her by her great-granddaughter, the playwright Lady Jane Cavendish. It offers an account of her significance and of the areas in which she is of interest. It concludes with a brief glance at what the essays in the collection contain.

in Bess of Hardwick
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Lisa Hopkins

Considers Bess’s achievement overall and rounds off the book.

in Bess of Hardwick
The iconography of Elizabeth I

The visual images of Queen Elizabeth I displayed in contemporary portraits and perpetuated and developed in more recent media, such as film and television, make her one of the most familiar and popular of all British monarchs. This book is a collection of essays that examine the diversity of the queen's extensive iconographical repertoire, focusing on both visual and textual representations of Elizabeth, in portraiture, literature, contemporary sermons, speeches and alchemical treatises. It falls into three sections. The first part looks at the diverse range of religious and quasi-religious images that were employed by and about Elizabeth, such as the Prophetesse Deborah, the suggestive parallel with Joan of Arc, and finally Lady Alchymia, the female deity in alchemical treatises. When Queen Elizabeth I, the first female Protestant monarch, was enthroned in 1558, male poets, artists, theologians, and statesmen struggled to represent this new phenomenon. The second part turns to one of the major enterprises of the Elizabethan era, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the Virgin Queen. The last part focuses on the ways in which the classical world was plundered for modes of imaging and figuring the queen. Finally, the book summarises the enormously wide range of Elizabeth's iconographical repertoire of its appeal, and provides a fitting end to a book which ranges so widely across the allegorical personae of the queen.

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Annaliese Connolly and Lisa Hopkins

This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book addresses the full range of the queen's extraordinary iconographical repertoire, focusing specifically on its development during Elizabeth I's forty-five-year reign. It looks at the diverse range of religious and quasi-religious images that were employed by Elizabeth. The book turns to one of the major enterprises of the Elizabethan era, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the Virgin Queen. It considers the development of the iconography of Elizabeth as a collaborative enterprise, through the examination of some of the most famous paintings of Elizabeth, paying particular attention to The Ditchley portrait, the Siena Sieve Portrait and the Rainbow Portrait. The book notes that a good deal has been written on the subject of Elizabeth's identification with Petrarch's Laura.

in Goddesses and Queens