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Chris Pearson

creation of a central mine clearance service in February 1945 speeded up operations. But there was a high human price to pay; approximately 471 French landmine clearers and 738 German prisoners of war were killed.102 In the end, 13 million mines were found on French soil, covering 1 per cent of national territory, Demilitarization was essential but expensive. The Consultative Commission for Damages and Reparations (CCDR) put its cost at five billion francs.103 Only once demilitarization was completed could longterm reconstruction of urban and rural areas begin. Like the

in Mobilizing nature
Abstract only
Katie Donington

practices of both people and place. It is no surprise that this history has manifested itself in recent calls for reparatory justice. Following the publication of CARICOM’s ten-point plan for reparations, the then Prime Minister of the UK, David Cameron, addressed the issue of slavery on a visit to Jamaica in 2015. 119 He urged Jamaicans to ‘move on from this painful legacy and continue to build for the

in The bonds of family
Open Access (free)
War, Debt, and Colonial Power
Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

despite continued European attempts to crush the revolution in its infancy, the slaves won their independence. However, in an Atlantic world replete with slavery, Haiti was politically and economically isolated. To gain international recognition from France, Haitian leaders agreed to pay France reparations for the loss of its property to the tune of 150 million francs in gold. This was an incredible sum to pay and to do so Haiti had to take “out huge loans from American, German and French banks, at exorbitant rates of interest. By 1900, Haiti was spending about 80% of

in Debt as Power
Addressing the legacy of the Troubles

, building confidence and trust, and moving towards empathy. For him, empathy also does not imply forgiveness or absolute harmony, and does not exclude feelings of anger. To achieve these objectives, Huyse argues that a variety of mechanisms are required, including truth-telling, reparations, restorative justice and processes to promote healing. 11 Similarly, after their comprehensive review of the literature, Brandon Hamber and Gráinne Kelly 12 conclude that reconciliation should best be viewed as a voluntary process

in Northern Ireland a generation after Good Friday
John Lough

unfounded after the failure of the Spartacist Uprising and the demise of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1919, he saw the tactical need to cooperate with the Weimar Republic. Aside from the economic motivation, there was also a joint interest in contesting the terms of the Versailles peace treaty. Both countries opposed its resurrection of Poland, while it also imposed on Germany extensive disarmament obligations and crippling reparations. Russia did not participate in the treaty negotiations since it had concluded a separate peace agreement with Germany and

in Germany’s Russia problem
Relationships and issues, 1941–45
Andrew Williams

supported by the United States.13 But Welles’ dismissive tone was more the norm. France was largely seen as an irrelevance in Washington. The dislike was also undoubtedly because many in Washington feared that the French, were they given the chance, might demand a settlement as punitive as Versailles. The State Department was sent information in early 1943 indicating that France would demand reparations from Germany after Williams Chapter 5 145 23/10/98, 11:41 am 146 Failed imagination? the war (‘their slice of the melon’), especially if other states did. This was

in Failed imagination?
Abstract only
The Voortrekker Monument and Freedom Park
Yvette Hutchison

was the suggestion that the government should provide monuments and memorials as symbolic forms of reparation, alongside financial reparations to victims and their families. In 1999 Nelson Mandela formulated the dream that was to be realised in Freedom Park: ‘The day should not be far off, when we shall have a people’s shrine, a freedom park, where we shall honour with all the dignity they deserve, those who endured pain so we should experience the joy of freedom’. The project was proposed in 1998, and then allocated 52 hectares on Salvokop, opposite the Voortrekker

in South African performance and archives of memory
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

control the other commissioners, with the support of Lord Dufferin, the British commissioner. 64 The mandate of the commission was to punish the guilty, secure reparations for the Christian losses and suggest reforms that would ensure order and security. 65 Deliberations, with Fuad chairing, started on 5 October 1860 with the aim of arriving at a new arrangement for Lebanon. The French tried to set up a Maronite Lebanon under a native Christian governor. The Austrian and Prussian

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
A conceptualisation of violence against women’s health (VAWH)
Sara De Vido

conduct. I also pointed out the importance of intersectionality in the analysis of ‘patterns of discrimination,’ which will prove to be helpful in theorising states’ obligations, and in reflecting on reparations. Compared to the notion of VAW, I added to the notion of VAWH the element of consent, which expresses and gives strength to women’s autonomy. VAWH is a limitation of women’s autonomy and alters their consent. Challenges to the public/private divide My concept allows us to reflect on the ‘public/private divide’ developed, and challenged soon after its

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Open Access (free)
Joe Turner

community organisers defending sailors in Liverpool in 1919, to the refusal to accept police oppression and brutality in Southall in 1979, Toxteth or Brixton in 1980, the resistance to the criminalisation of forced marriage by Asian, Islamic and black women’s groups, or the demands of Black Lives Matter, and renewed calls from Commonwealth countries for colonial reparations (for more global circulations of violence/solidarity see Davis 2016). Coulthard (2014: 131) points to how creative and artistic endeavours have always been central to such anti-colonial struggles, from

in Bordering intimacy