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A history of cinema exhibition in Britain since 1896
Author: Stuart Hanson

The exhibition of films has developed from a lowly fairground attraction in the 1890s to the multi-million pound industry of today. This book charts the development of cinema exhibition and cinema-going in Britain from the first public film screening in February 1896 through to the opening of 30-screen 'megaplexes'. It recounts the beginnings of cinema and in particular its rapid development, by the eve of the Great War, as the pre-eminent mass entertainment. The book considers developments of cinema as an independent entertainment, the positioning of cinemas within the burgeoning metropolitan spaces, the associated search for artistic respectability, the coming of sound and a large-scale audience. The period from 1913 to 1930 was one in which the cinema industry underwent dramatic restructuring, new chains, and when Hollywood substantially increased its presence in British cinemas. Cinema-going is then critically analysed in the context of two powerful myths; the 'Golden Age' and the 'universal audience'. The book also considers the state of cinema exhibition in Britain in the post-war period, and the terminal decline of cinema-going from the 1960s until 1984. It looks at the development of the multiplex in the United States from the 1960s and examines the importance of the shopping mall and the suburb as the main focus for these cinema developments. Finally, the book discusses the extent to which the multiplex 'experience' accounts for the increase in overall attendance; and how developments in the marketing of films have run in tandem with developments in the cinema.

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Colin Gardner

). 4 MacDonald Carey is on the wrong end of an umbrella as Oliver Reed and Shirley Ann Field look on with sadistic amusement in The Damned (1961). 5 Eve (Jeanne Moreau) seduces a smitten Tyvian (Stanley Baker) by telling a fabricated tale of her childhood in Eve (1962

in Joseph Losey
Rachel Willie

Chapter five examines how early Restoration comedy rewrote the English Civil War to address ideas of panegyric and the rhetoric of praise. Although the Restoration was greeted with much festivity, it brought about a fragile political settlement. These plays recast the Civil War in comic mode to question ideas of kingship and governance. Through dramatising the eve of Restoration, John Tatham’s The Rump (c. 1660) directly engages with contemporary concerns, while Robert Howard’s The Committee (1663), and John Lacy’s The Old Troop (1664) return to the civil war as their temporal location to question roundhead and cavalier virtues and vices and to address contemporary anxieties regarding the Restoration Settlement.

in Staging the revolution
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Neil Sinyard

Eater at the Cannes Film Festival, 1964 12 Clayton at Jurassic Park: directing the scene on the boating lake in Our Mother’s House. Photography by Eve Arnold. Reproduced by courtesy of Eve Arnold and Magnum Photos, to whom grateful thanks

in Jack Clayton
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Artist and critic meet in the mirror
Mary Karen Dahl

on the door, opens the door, regards ‘with a pained detachment’ a naked man standing mutely there, and closes the door (OP4, 11). The play spins out threads of the argument her actions introduce. I On seeing The first of these threads twists together self-consciousness and self-scrutiny with desire and gendered power and ties them to a founding myth in the western tradition (13–15, 34, 36–7, 49–50, etc.). In her first of several interpretations of Eve’s story, Sleev claims that, in the beginning, there were no mirrors. She speculates that Eve was ‘self

in Howard Barker’s Art of Theatre
Empire and identity, 1923–39
Thomas Hajkowski

This chapter examines the key role of the BBC in fostering a culture of imperialism from the 1920s to the eve of the Second World War. The broadcast of The Four Feathers revealed several aspects of the BBC's relationship to empire and imperialism during the period from its inception in the early 1920s to the Second World War. The reach and potential influence of the BBC suggests that the empire remained important to British national identity in the 1950s, even after the first wave of decolonization. The extent and range of programmes that had empire as their subject matter were considerable such as Empire Vaudeville and Radio Times. From its inception, the BBC acted as an agent to promote the empire among its audience. When war came in 1939, the empire figured prominently in the BBC's programming. As the war progressed the BBC devoted a remarkable amount of time in its schedules to promoting the empire.

in The BBC and national identity in Britain, 1922–53
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Editor: Gregory Vargo

The first collection of its kind, Chartist Drama makes available four plays written or performed by members of the Chartist movement of the 1840s. Emerging from the lively counter-culture of this protest campaign for democratic rights, these plays challenged cultural as well as political hierarchies by adapting such recognisable genres as melodrama, history plays, and tragedy for performance in radically new settings. A communal, public, and embodied art form, drama was linked for the Chartists with other kinds of political performance: the oratory of the mass platform, festival-like outdoor meetings, and the elaborate street theatre of protest marches. Plays that Chartists wrote or staged advanced new interpretations of British history and criticised aspects of the contemporary world. And Chartist drama intervened in fierce strategic arguments within the movement. Most notably, poet-activist John Watkins’s John Frost, which dramatises the gripping events of the Newport rising of 1839, in which twenty-two Chartists lost their lives, defends the rebellion and the Chartist recourse to violence as a means for the movement to achieve its aims. The volume’s appendices document over one hundred Chartist dramatic performances, staged by activists in local Chartist associations or at professional benefits at some of London’s largest working-class theatres. Gregory Vargo’s introduction and notes elucidate the previously unexplored world of Chartist dramatic culture, a context that promises to reshape what we know about early Victorian popular politics and theatre.

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Reading Old Testament women in early modern England, 1550–1700
Victoria Brownlee and Laura Gallagher

-century political theorists. 2 The woman first mentioned in Scripture, Eve, is perhaps a more familiar case in point, for, although only mentioned in Genesis 2:22–5, Genesis 3 and briefly at the beginning of the book’s fourth chapter, she incited more comment than any other biblical woman (and most men) in the period. 3 Early modern readings of Eve were as

in Biblical women in early modern literary culture 1550–1700
Seeking help against intimate partner violence in lesbian and queer relationships
Nicole Ovesen

This chapter explores the concept of bioprecarity in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) in LBTQ relationships by focusing on help-seeking as crossing encounters. Judith Butler (2004: 44) discusses the body as a site of human vulnerability, emphasizing that ‘this vulnerability is always articulated differently, that it cannot be properly thought of outside a differentiated field of power and, specifically, the differential operation of norms of recognition’. Eve Sedgwick (1990: 71) describes the invisibility sustaining the figure of the closet as the defining structure of gay oppression. Following this line of thought, Beverly Skeggs and Leslie Moran (2014: 5) address the need to produce ‘new visibilities’ claims for protection against violence. Drawing on these theorizations and on original empirical data, in this chapter I analyse the concept of help-seeking as crossing encounters of intimacy, not only in the sense of the private–public realms, but also regarding community and cultural boundaries, as the embodied LBTQ victim-survivor transgresses the cultural perceptions of victimhood when meeting help providers in an institutional context.

in Bodily interventions and intimate labour
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Queer theory, literature and the politics of sameness
Author: Ben Nichols

In its contributions to the study of material social differences, queer theoretical writing has mostly assumed that any ideas which embody 'difference' are valuable. More than this, where it is invoked in contemporary theory, queerness is often imagined as synonymous with difference itself. This book uncovers an alternative history in queer cultural representation. Through engagement with works from a range of queer literary genres from across the long twentieth century – fin-de-siècle aestheticism, feminist speculative fiction, lesbian middle-brow writing, and the tradition of the stud file – the book elucidates a number of formal and thematic attachments to ideas that have been denigrated in queer theory for their embodiment of sameness: uselessness, normativity, reproduction and reductionism. Exploring attachments to these ideas in queer culture is also the occasion for a broader theoretical intervention: Same Old suggests, counterintuitively, that the aversion they inspire may be of a piece with how homosexuality has been denigrated in the modern West as a misguided orientation towards sameness. Combining queer cultural and literary history, sensitive close readings and detailed genealogies of theoretical concepts, Same Old encourages a fundamental rethinking of some of the defining positions in queer thought.