) ‘Organisationen 2000’ , Jahrbuch Extremismus und Demokratie , Baden-Baden , Nomos .
von Blumenthal, J. ( 2003 ) ‘Auswanderung aus den Verfassungsinstitutionen’ , Das Parlament. Beilage: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte , 43 : 9–15 .
Braunthal , G. ( 1990 ) Political Loyalty and Public Service in Western Germany , Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press .
Bundesministerium des Innern ( 2014 ) Verfassungsschutzbericht 2013 , Berlin, Bundesministerium des Innern .
Burkhart , S. and Lehnert , M. ( 2008 ) ‘Between consensus and conflict: law-making
law-making and subordinated to the archbishop’s larger moral
Evidence for this process survives in the form of the three versions of
Æthelred’s ‘penitential edict’ of 1009: a Latin
text preserved in the twelfth-century compilation Quadripartitus
(designated VII Æthelred; translated below, pp. 186–8), an
Old English ‘draft’ produced by Wulfstan sometime around the
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy, and Michele Crepaz
have significant control about how lobbying is in fact regulated. It is also interesting to note that several cities in the US such as Pittsburgh, Boston and New York also have lobbying registers where those who want to lobby the city must register.
Celebrating its 150th year anniversary in 2017, Canada is a federal country founded in 1867. The federal government has two law-making bodies: the House of Commons (the lower house, consisting of 338 members) and the Senate (the upper house, consisting of 105 members that are appointed by the Prime Minister
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain
from taxation, unable to enter into contracts and dependent on the
government for their support, arguments that were, at least
theoretically, non-racial. 30 However this special status had political implications,
given Macdonald’s position as superintendent-general, the guardian
and protector of these children at law, making it easy for opponents to
claim that it was he who would control the
The Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission and Garda accountability
Legal accountability is often the most visible face of accountability, often bearing the brunt of expectations: the British police are ‘answerable to the law’, making them ‘the most accountable and therefore the most acceptable police in the world’ (Mark, 1977 :56). In practice, legal accountability refers to complaints systems and to civil and criminal actions. The courts can have a role in imposing legal accountability, but criminal and civil actions are difficult, lengthy and costly, pitting citizens and police in adversarial
afterworld – and hence
the political nature of the passage from life to death – which otherwise has been an important element for the construction of hegemony and social order. In Latin America, for example, ideas of an
afterworld and in particular of purgatory were crucial for Spanish
colonisation, when the brute, law-making force of the conquest was
replaced by law-enforcing political governance, including the insertion of the Catholic Church between life and death to help people
to ‘die well’.9 This ensured a certain power over life in the form of
confessions and other
A never-ending story of mutual attraction and estrangement
Nikos Frangakis and Antonios D. Papayannides
national law-making. Following the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty, a Standing Committee for European
Affairs was formed, to which a general report on European issues and
government activities has to be submitted annually. Ministers are
expected to brief this Committee and be available for specific parliamentary questions and hearings. After some initial enthusiasm, the level of
effective scrutiny through the Committee for European Affairs has been
rather low and government officials have been reluctant to appear before
it. Hearings have grown to be somewhat of a
this example to my very first meeting with Professor Jan Klabbers.
34 M Milde , International Air Law and ICAO , vol 4 ( Eleven International Publishing 2008 ); Ludwig Weber , International Civil Aviation Organization ( Wolters Kluwer 2007 ).
35 E Yemin , Legislative Powers in the United Nations and Specialized Agencies ( AW Sijthoff 1969 ) 146 .
36 R Abeyratne , ‘ LawMaking and Decision Making Powers of the ICAO Council: A Critical Analysis ’ ( 1992 ) 41 Zeitschrift fur Luft-und Weltraumrecht 387 .
37 J Carroz
International Law: Between Theory and Practice ’, Research Handbook on the Theory and Practice of International Lawmaking ( Elgar 2016 ).
3 Christian Tams , ‘ Meta-Custom and the Court: A Study in Judicial Law-Making ’, The Law & Practice of International Courts and Tribunals ( Brill, Nijhoff 2015 ). Also see d’Aspremont (n 1) 9.
4 SS ‘Lotus’ case, 1927 PCIJ (ser A) No 10, 18, 29; SS Wimbledon, 1923 PCIJ (ser A) No 1, 25.
5 SS ‘Lotus’ 28.
6 North Sea Continental Shelf case, 1969 ICJ Judgement, para 77.
7 For example, North Sea Continental case
participatory nature of the international legal system, see J d’Aspremont , ‘ International Law-Making by Non-State Actors: Changing the Model or Putting the Phenomenon into Perspective? ’ in M Noortmann and C Ryngaert (eds), Non-State Actor Dynamics in International Law – From Law-Takers to the Lawmakers 171 (Routledge 2010 ).
2 Also in this regard see International Law Commission, Michael Wood, Special Rapporteur, First report on formation and evidence of customary international law, UN Doc A/CN.4/663, paras 13–15 (17 May 2013); International Law