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External influences and continental shaping forces
Mary Farrell

and limited in the capacity to influence. The institutional framework established to support the political dialogue in the JAES is top-­heavy, mostly removed from the political interests of the state, and at a distance from other socio-­economic interests, including the business community. Dialogue between the AU and EU Commissions may well fail to take account of political interests at the level of the state, or even the RECs. There is inadequate research on the politics of integration in Africa in terms of the interests of state (and non-­state) actors, and of the

in The European Union in Africa
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

addition, they are ill-prepared to deal with the dramatic growth of non-traditional and transnational security threats. The resulting erosion of African state power and its inability to safeguard its citizenry is not the cause of this situation, but indicative of the symptomatic failure of the state itself and its discredited approach to building security. This vacuum has in turn propelled the entry of an increasing and diverse number of non-state actors into the security sector and is forcing a critically needed reassessment of the role of the state. Despite its flaws

in African security in the twenty-first century
The case of the Islamic State
Tom Kaden and Christoph Günther

in many aspects and wanted this to be recognised. Al-Baghdādī also notably exacerbated his rhetoric in the upcoming months that saw intensifying fights between the still expanding Islamic State and the Iraqi and Syrian military, their international allies and various non-state actors. The universalist language that had been characteristic of messages by the Islamic State's leadership was gradually superseded by a focus on particularities in terms of battlegrounds and groups referenced in the communiqués (see al-Baghdādī 2015

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition
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Gender trouble in Siddiq Barmak’s Osama
Gabrielle Simm

whether an attack by a non-State actor can constitute an armed attack giving rise to a right to self-defence. 23 Further, it remains controversial whether such an attack can justify a response in self-defence against a State which is ‘harbouring’ them, especially when it is unclear whether the State knew of or could have prevented such an attack. 24 Even assuming that a right to self-defence arises in response to an attack by non-State actors, the international law of self-defence imposes requirements of necessity and proportionality. 25 These requirements do not

in Cinematic perspectives on international law
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The fightback
Sarah Fine

). Furthermore, it is not just other states that are drafted in to do the border dirty work. Countries also co-opt non-state actors, such as airlines and ferry operators, to manage their borders for them—threatening them with stiff penalties if they allow unauthorized travelers to use their services ( p. 35 ). This use of financial incentives and coordination with private companies “blurs the line between state and market,” illustrating yet another form assumed by the shifting border (hence the “Inc.” in my chapter’s title). Importantly, Shachar emphasizes throughout her

in The shifting border
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

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Nigel D. White

of the UN Charter, a provision that empowers the Security Council to adopt sanctions against states, although it has further developed this power to promulgate targeted sanctions against individuals and other non-state actors (NSAs). The move away from general sanctions against states, such as Rhodesia, Iraq, Serbia and Libya, is analysed, especially for their impact on the human rights of the population (for example the right to health). The applicability of human rights norms to the UN is discussed. The Security Council has, more recently, favoured targeted

in The law of international organisations (third edition)
The political dynamics
Mary C. Murphy

influence. From the governance perspective, this equates to the construction of institutions which support the multi-level character of EU governance, including key roles for non-state actors. The introduction of devolution and the new institutions created by the 1998 Belfast Agreement bear witness to some of the features associated with EU governance. However, they also formalise, institutionalise and perhaps even strengthen state involvement in the process of regional governance. Suggestions therefore, that the EU has assisted in the promotion of ‘new politics’ in

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
Data and measurement
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

insurgency, “guerrilla war,” and “irregular war” as synonyms.38 Insurgencies are a form of unconventional warfare to the extent that conventional warfare is thought to involve militaries facing each other on battlefields.39 Insurgent groups are non-state actors employing irregular forces and small-war tactics against conventional armed forces, or the armed forces of a state. Insurgents are the armed actors who engage in the low-intensity conflict or irregular warfare associated with insurgencies. The tactics of insurgent groups include terrorism and guerrilla tactics, or

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Itinerant death at the Ground Zero Mosque and Bali bombsite
Charlotte Heath-Kelly

made on other places – causing bombsites to shrink. How should we consider this mobility and mutation? As I will explain in this chapter, it is the practice of security undertaken by non-state actors to mitigate the presence of mortality that sometimes causes the constitution of disaster space to shift. I will explore the contingency of post-terrorist space in this chapter

in Death and security