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A relational approach
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

images of the whole continent. George Ogola writes about the difficulties of setting up pan-African television networks that can encompass the continent, and explores the possibilities of alternative ways of conceiving the continent through more diffused images. He asks, how can ‘Africa’ be defined? Can political ideas of the continent – focusing on pan-Africanism, for example – do more than offer a static, flattened image? Ogola turns to the Africa served up by Nollywood, and suggests that its strength lies in its ability to convey many Africas that are open to

in Images of Africa
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Tim Woods

into two parts: Chapters 1 to 4 focus on pan-African commonalities, while Chapters 5 to 7 offer more detailed, historicised and territorialised accounts of recent South African writing. Chapter 8 attends to a more overarching issue of the usefulness of metafictionality and postmodernity as terms to understand African literature, and also acts as something of a concluding assessment, especially since all the preceding

in African pasts
From colonial to cross-cultural psychiatry in Nigeria
Matthew M. Heaton

published in my historical monograph Black Skin, White Coats: Nigerian Psychiatrists, Decolonization, and the Globalization of Psychiatry. I would like to thank Ohio University Press for permission to reproduce it here. 2 As noted by al-Mahi in his introductory comments at the First Pan-African Psychiatric Conference (Lambo, 1961 : 11). 3

in Global health and the new world order
Critique and utopia in Benita Parry’s thought
Laura Chrisman

And it is also to be found in Said’s Culture and Imperialism classification of ‘decolonising discourses’ as a progression from nativist through nationalist to liberationist theory.11 Rebutting Said, Parry points out that Not only are the stages less disjunct than the periodisation suggests – messianic movements and Pan-Africanism were utopian in their goals, Nkrumah’s nationalism was not exclusively Africanist, acknowledging as it did the recombinant qualities of a culture which had developed through assimilating Arabic and western features, and so on – but the

in Postcolonial contraventions
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Joseph Heller

and turned their attention to détente beyond the borders of the Middle East, leading, eventually, to the War of Attrition which presaged the Yom Kippur War. The patrons realized too late that the conflict was so dangerously great they had lost control over their clients. Nasser held the key and, although he did not want the war, he became its victim because of his pan-Arab, pan-Islamic and pan-African

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
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Dakar’s ‘old city’ and beyond
Liora Bigon

old city centre sell ‘Senegalese’ pictures. These are based on copies of photos of local Sufi saints, brought back from China after a careless process of duplication and enlargement, as well as price reduction. 20 Present urban manifestations of popular memories and identities in Dakar form a ‘spectatorial realm’. 21 This ranges on the visual level from the festivalisation of the city (pan-African and

in French colonial Dakar
To the cities and the prisons
Allison Drew

struggle challenged this non-violent paradigm. 71 In December, Ghana hosted an All-Africa People’s Conference for nationalist parties across Africa. The conference promoted an ‘African Personality based on ... Pan-African Socialism as the ideology of the African Non-Violent Revolution’. Ahmed Boumendjel, Dr Chawki Mostefaï and Fanon - as Dr Fanon Omar - represented Algeria. 72

in We are no longer in France
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The Philosopher-Poet
Kwabena Opoku-Agyemang and Cheikh Thiam

-colonial layers are thereafter introduced into the preface. The immediately obvious layer is geographical, as John of the Cross becomes the embodiment of Europe, introduced to a preface that has hitherto been grounded in Africa through Mudimbe’s reference to the Congo. Uprooting the setting from Africa to Europe suggests a complex engagement with hybridity that is the reverse of the journey of intellectuals such as Mudimbe himself who – like Pan-African contemporaries such as Ghana’s Ayi Kwei Armah and Nigeria's Wole Soyinka – travelled to the West

in The Pan-African Pantheon
Africa’s Quest for Authentic Knowledge
M. John Lamola

discipline to which he himself wanted to contribute. As mentioned in his autobiography, Nkrumah got his MA in philosophy in 1943 at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and registered soon after for a PhD in “ethno-philosophy”. He actually wrote the thesis but could not defend it before leaving in 1945 to Britain, where he served as secretary to the fifth Pan-African Congress. I am indebted to William Abraham for providing me with a copy of the typewritten manuscript. The word “ethno-philosophy” already appears in the title: Mind and Thought in Primitive Society

in The Pan-African Pantheon
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Ogun’s Bard
Sanya Osha

humiliation and psychological abjection. Once released from jail at the end of the civil war in 1970, Soyinka ventured into self-exile in Ghana (where he had a spell editing Transition , the landmark Pan-African cultural journal), undoubtedly to create some distance between himself and the traumatic experiences of incarceration. Shortly after, he was offered a fellowship at the University of Cambridge between 1973 and 1974, which served as the beginning of another fertile period for him. Several major literary works such as The Bacchae of

in The Pan-African Pantheon