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Ben O’Loughlin

politics. Diplomacy: kinship and religion Iver Neumann (Neumann 2011) traces the history of the myths and metaphors underpinning diplomacy. He argues that contemporary diplomacy is based on religion and kinship. Since Augustine, the idea circulated that the world is made up of cities united in God, and that cities must be united in peace and justice. Diplomacy signifies human weakness: it is needed when people have strayed from God. Envoys between city-​states and eventually between states became necessary. They were not to be harmed because they are the means to peace

in Image operations
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James Whidden

meant that the British government failed to commit itself to the new policy of cultural diplomacy, social integration, and bilateral relations. The undying idea of a British imperial race compromised collaboration; the imperial narrative weakened the position of the Egyptian elites whose bargain with British power had been strategic, founded on the idea of Egyptian national autonomy. In an unexpected turn

in Egypt
Aboriginal subjects and Queen Victoria’s gifts in Canada and Australia
Amanda Nettelbeck

of this attachment lay in a long history of diplomatic exchanges between Aboriginal people and the British Crown dating back to the fur trade and the military alliances of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and that during Victoria’s reign helped pave the way for the negotiation of treaties. 8 This history of formal diplomacy shaped a more tangible relationship

in Mistress of everything
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Lindsay Aqui

membership was impacted by the crises of 1973. The second section considered Wilson’s motivations for proposing the renegotiation, the nature of the outcome and the extent to which the renegotiation was continuous with the Heath government’s approach to the EC. The final section asked why the public voted ‘yes’ in 1975 and attempted to offer greater context to the outcome of the referendum. The notions of decline and crisis were central themes which help to explain the course of Britain’s diplomacy, the domestic presentation of Community membership and the shape of public

in The first referendum
Elana Wilson Rowe

collegiality during the weeks leading up to the Iqaluit Ministerial’ (Arctic Council Secretariat, 2015a: 4). Likewise, at a meeting six months earlier, an output on Arctic marine oil pollution prevention was touted as being of key importance for ‘public diplomacy’ (Arctic Council Secretariat, 2014:  8). These stated emphases on the diplomatic and symbolic traditions of the Arctic Council suggest that delegates were aware there was an audience watching to see how Arctic Council work proceeded in a new atmosphere of inter-​state strife. Secondly, the Canadian ministerial

in Arctic governance
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Jenny Benham

meaning of peace is not restricted to being the antonym of war. A more useful way of approaching success or failure is to view peace-making and diplomacy as a web of different relationships that contributed to ultimate success or failure. Althoff has already explored this phenomenon in terms of group bonds and personenverbandsstaat and his conclusions are clearly applicable to

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Thomas Robb

’s ambassador to Washington (1962−86). However, the British also engaged in backchannel diplomacy with Rowley Cromer (UK ambassador to Washington, 1971–74) first acting as the main liaison, and Trend gradually assuming the role from 1971/2 onwards.41 Other key individuals for the management of US–UK relations included Rowley Cromer, Denis Greenhill, Thomas Brimelow, Richard Sykes and Charles Powell.42 Cromer was the former governor of the Bank of England, and had acted as an unofficial adviser to the Conservative Party during the Labour governments of Harold Wilson (1964

in A strained partnership?
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Daniel Laqua

physiognomy’.3 The Belgian case reveals the interaction between different visions of international order, transnational activism and diplomacy. In Belgium, the seemingly pragmatic efforts of officials and scholars overlapped with the campaigns of peace activists. This chapter therefore approaches the engagement with questions of peace and international organisation at different levels and traces them across the First World War. It shows how support for the aims of peace groups cut across the political spectrum, based on the understanding that internationalism and national

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930
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Ireland, Nigeria and the politics of civil war
Kevin O’Sullivan

4 Biafra Ireland, Nigeria and the politics of civil war The debate over the future of southern Africa at the UN laid bare the growing fissures between the ‘fire brigade’ states and the Afro-Asian group. Theirs was a conflict between moderate and radical approaches, articulated in disagreements over procedure and the niceties of international diplomacy. Yet their differences did little to disguise the groups’ support for a common cause: the right of subject peoples to self-determination. In the late 1950s and early 1960s these ideals had been easily articulated in

in Ireland, Africa and the end of empire
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

the Goths ; Gregory of Tours (538–94) touched on issues of diplomacy in his History of the Franks ; and Paul the Deacon (720–99) noted both themes in his History of the Lombards. Pope Gregory the Great (590–604) wrote about the experiences of his youth when he was Rome’s ambassador to Byzantium and negotiator with the Lombards. This chapter will sketch the distant adumbrations of a few terms and notions that are central to International Relations theory – rudimentary concepts of states and state interactions, early notions of the value of peace and

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)