with the fact that the two
‘vipers’ Derricke singles out as examples are from different regions (not to
mention members of well-educated GaelicIrish elites rather than savage
bog-dwellers), and at odds with the contents of the poem itself. In ‘The Image of
Irelande’ the supposed majority of faithful Irish subjects do not figure at all, and
several passages appear to suggest that the speaker is in fact referring to the Irish in
general. The poem begins with ‘the aucthour’ taking a panoramic view of
substantiation of the declaration contained
in Article 2.
The name of the State and the Irish language
One of the ways in which it was attempted to prove to the people that this was
a fresh start with a new trustworthy Constitution was to entrench the idea of a
GaelicIreland into the Constitution. The people needed to feel that this was their
State and their Constitution, and the introduction of Irish terminology helped to
reinforce this.51 Furthermore, it was a signal to the rest of the world; our ancient
language proved that we had always been a separate ancient nation.
The public meanings of emigration and the shaping of emigrant selves in post- war Ireland, 1945– 1969
everyday life in mid-century Ireland. Where the achievement of independence in 1921 was celebrated as a seminal moment in the history of the nation, political sovereignty did not deliver an economic transformation. Instead, self-governance sharpened the discrepancy between an idealised GaelicIreland and the unsettling permutations of what Fintan O’Toole has termed the ‘demographic Ireland’. 18 In the former mythic place of ‘cosy homesteads’ and morally pure rural communities, the Irish people were innately ‘satisfied with frugal comfort’, their leisure time devoted to
-Saxon England (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012).
18 Patrick Wormald, ‘Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Kingship: Some Further Thoughts’, in Sources of Anglo-Saxon Culture , ed. Paul Szarmach (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1986), pp. 151–83; Bart Jaski, Early Irish Kingship and Succession (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000); Katherine Simms, From Kings to Warlords: The Changing Political Structure of GaelicIreland in the Later Middle Ages (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1987).
19 eDIL , s.v. febas . See Jaski’s overview of febas , which he describes as
The cartographic consciousness of Irish gothic fiction
temporary, albeit involuntary, suspension of his identity, 87 he nevertheless represents, like Glorvina and Grace Nugent, the dispossession and political allegiances of GaelicIreland. 88 This is apparent in the associations conjured by his various names. ‘Ferdinand Sylvester’ recalls the eighteenth-century antiquarian, Sylvester O’Halloran (1728–1807), while ‘Netterville’ raises the spectre of the recusant John Netterville, 2nd Viscount Netterville of Dowth (d. 1659), and his father, both of whom were implicated in the 1641 Rebellion and consequently lost both title
Raleigh’s ‘Ocean to Scinthia’, Spenser’s ‘Colin Clouts Come Home Againe’ and The Faerie Queene IV.vii in colonial context
102 Quinn, Raleigh, 155; on Raleigh’s Irish smelting industry, see Canny, ‘Raleigh’s’, 95.
103 Kenneth Nicholls, ‘Woodland Cover in Pre-Modern Ireland’, in GaelicIreland: Land,
Lordship and Settlement c.1250–c.1650, ed. Patrick J. Duffy, David Edwards, and Elizabeth Fitzpatrick (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2001), 181–206: 199.
speaker. Summer otium turns forest of Error redolent of his colonial situation in Spenser’s poetry.104
A second material fixation of the poem is terrestrial and mineral
Historical Studies 31:123 (May, 1999), pp. 305–27.
Greer Ramsey, ‘A Breath of Fresh Air: Rectal Music in GaelicIreland’, Archaeology Ireland 16:1 (Spring, 2002), pp. 22–3; Ann
Buckley, ‘Representations of Musicians in John Derricke’s ‘The Image
of Irelande’ (1581)’, in Vjera Katalinić and Zdravko
Blažeković (ed.), Glazba, Riječi i Slike: Svečani Zbornik za
Koraljku Kos/Music, Words, and Images: Essays in Honour of Koraljka Kos (Zagreb:
Croatian Musicological Society, 1999
again.’ The sexual references are both amusing and oblique, helping to explain the song’s longevity and continued popularity. Arguably though, the concept of the song itself is built around a deeper innuendo relating to the popular folk image of O’Connell as the modern incarnation of the hyper-masculine GaelicIrish hero Cuchulain, possessed of sexual attractiveness and a powerful libido as represented here by the metaphor of the ‘steam engine’, but also in the Glasgow reference to ‘O’Donnell’s’ ‘ould capers’. 68
In the Canadian version, the song defuses both its
distinguished between the Anglo-Irish, under such descriptions as: the
English race, English born in Ireland, faithful lieges, faithful
English, degenerate English, English rebels or English traitors; and the
GaelicIrish, variously described as: Irish enemies, men of the Irish
nation of Ireland, savage Irish, pure Irish, Irish malefactors, fierce
Irish or wild Irish