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Kropotkin’s rejection of anti
Peter Ryley

. Both engaged with the emerging social sciences to develop theories that would explain how wars arose and what was needed to stop them. These explanations fell into four main groups: free trade and non-intervention; anti-statism and anti-imperialism; international law and arbitration; and radical social change, notably socialism and feminism. Free trade and non-intervention The association between trade and peace was established liberal opinion by the mid-eighteenth century. As early as 1748 Montesquieu wrote that ‘Peace is the natural effect of trade’, binding

in Anarchism, 1914–18
Scott Wilson

marketing and branded identity. Nike generates and expends (consumes) physical and mental resources – both productive and non-productive – as the energy that flows through the global supercapitalist ecosystem. X ◊ sovereignty (imperative form) The ‘sovereignty’ that is attributed to African-American culture should not be understood in the sense of that term when it refers to the sovereignty of states as defined by international law. Rather, sovereignty should be understood economically as an immanent principle of supercapitalism which denotes economic activity that is

in Great Satan’s rage
Alexander Spencer

of the chapter then turns to the story told about mercenaries in international law and literature to highlight many of the persistencies in the anti-mercenary narrative. The second part will show how many of the narrative elements already present in these stories can also be found in US newspaper narratives of PMSCs’ setting, characterization and emplotment in Iraq. The third part will outline an opposing and marginalized romantic story about PMSCs. In particular this includes romantic stories PMSCs tell about themselves on their websites, again with a focus in

in Romantic narratives in international politics
Geoffrey Hicks

concerns. It included four significant criticisms: of ‘interference’; of the problems produced by a foreign policy supposedly based on ‘liberal’ or ‘constitutional’ principles; of disruption to the European status quo; and of disregard for international law and treaties. First and foremost, like the Peelites and radicals, the Protectionists condemned interference in another country’s affairs, just as they had in the debates about Portugal and Italy in the late 1840s. Stanley outlined what might be described as the definitive Conservative position: ‘In any country the

in Peace, war and party politics
Abstract only
Dean J. White

British troops were sent to the country. Yet at no stage did Britain’s traditionally defined interest in Rwanda change. There must then be more to humanitarian intervention than national interest alone. International law, sovereignty and international responsibility An alternative explanation is that rather than national interest it is international law that compels countries to respond to humanitarian crises overseas. Since 1945 the international community has codified numerous treaties covering human rights and humanitarian law, including, most pertinently in the case

in The ignorant bystander?
Abstract only
Daniel Laqua

-evident, internationalism was not always based on egalitarian principles either. International law – which played such a major role in internationalist discourse – was sustained by notions of civilisational difference, which it could even reinforce.1 Seen in this way, imperialism may appear as a form of ‘hegemonic internationalism’.2 Few aspects of Belgian history have generated as much controversy as the country’s imperial past. Leopold II’s personal rule in the Congo – terminated by Belgium’s annexation of the Congo Free State in 1908 – was characterised by exploitation, violence and a

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930
Abstract only
Ireland, Nigeria and the politics of civil war
Kevin O’Sullivan

the ‘fire brigade’ states’ support for decolonisation and the end of imperial rule. When the debate turned to apartheid and racial discrimination, Western interests – direct and indirect – and the growing radicalism of the Afro-Asian group blurred the lines somewhat between principled and pragmatic support. But in essence the response remained the same, based on a commitment to justice, human rights and the primacy of international law. With self-government, however, came change. As the situation in southern Africa settled into a protracted battle of wills between

in Ireland, Africa and the end of empire
Israel as a role model in liberal thought
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

alternatives such as Argentina, Uganda and Sinai, so long as the strategic goal could be achieved. The efforts to establish a state were divided into gradual and calculated stages, and they overtook Palestinian lands lump by lump, inch by inch and acre by acre. The Zionists were not concerned with questions of principles and rights, just survival, development and expansion. In contrast to the diligence and pragmatism demonstrated by the Zionists, Arabs relied on slogans, appealing to international law and morals. They failed to realize that the imperative elements were power

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Abstract only
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

4 Failing states States are the only contemporary political organizations that enjoy a unique legal status under international law—sovereignty—and are deemed to possess an exclusive monopoly on the legitimate use of force within their borders. While the modern nation-state† has existed for more than 350 years, states today are much more varied in their capacity, capability, and composition than ever before. They are also more numerous than they were half a century ago, and the range of their population sizes, physical endowments, wealth, productivity, delivery

in African security in the twenty-first century
Open Access (free)
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

is one of the vaguest branches of international law. We are told that intervention is a right; that it is a crime; that it is the rule; that it is the exception; that it is never permissible at all’. 3 Following the Second World War the problem with intervention continued to be discussed in the international law and international relations literature. 4 In the post-Cold War era, with increasing interventionism, interest hardly diminished, the main

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century