, suggests Ermengard was hostile to Ebbo, having received his abbeys (Lothar removed Bobbio and Stablo from Ebbo: Hincmar, Epistola 198, p. 211).
27 Hincmar, Epistola 10, MGH Epp. 8, p. 4, after June 846.
28 Hincmar, Epistola 12, MGH Epp. 8, pp. 4–5.
29 Annales Fuldenses , s.a. 846, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891), p. 36 (trans. T. Reuter, The AnnalsofFulda (Manchester, 1992), pp. 24–5).
30 AB s.a. 844–45, pp. 46–51 (trans. Nelson, pp. 58
Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum , 60;
Christiansen, The Northern Crusades , 61.
Saxo, DRHH , ii, 504–9.
For a few examples, see The AnnalsofFulda , tr. T. Reuter (Manchester, 1992), 61, fn.13;
cross-references to other ninth-century historical sources, especially
annalistic ones of which translations are forthcoming in the Manchester
University Press series. (References to the notes to the AnnalsofFulda are to T. Reuter’s translation.) I have given
references to the standard (usually MGH ) editions of primary
materials in Latin (especially councils, capitularies and papal letters)
(along with the AnnalsofFulda, St-Bertin and St-Vaast) for the
history of the second half of the ninth century.
But Regino was more than an
eyewitness: he was a participant. If the end of the empire dominated
Regino’s historical perspective, this is partly because its
consequences intersected with the dramatic events of his own career,
which by his account was
Defining the boundaries of Carolingian Christianity
As Ganz, ‘Predestination’, p. 355,
memorably put it.
The example that springs to mind are the attacks
on Charles the Fat’s advisor Liutward of Vercelli reported in
the AnnalsofFulda , trans. T. Reuter (Manchester, 1991) sa
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock
apparent that he was deaf and mute and thus of little use as a servant. The unlucky child was then taken up by a travelling pedlar, partly from pity but partly too as a beast of burden, to carry smaller wares; eventually the child ran away to a church in Paris, where he was cured (and later became a cleric). 133
An anecdote from the AnnalsofFulda’s entry for 858 provides another snapshot of collective exclusion at work. In Kempten, not far from Mainz, a man and his entire family was forced to live outside the settlement, in the fields, because he had been possessed
Kirche, Recht und Staat im Mittelalter: Festschrift für Franz-Josef Schmale zu seinem 65. Geburtstag (Bochum, 1989), pp. 39–59, at 48.
106 Liber Pontificalis , Vita Nicolai I , cc. 58–63, II, pp. 162–3 (trans. Davis, pp. 234–8).
107 AB s.a. 865, p. 118 (trans. Nelson, p. 123): ‘non regulariter sed potentialiter’.
108 Annales Fuldenses , ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891) s.a. 864, p. 62 (trans. T. Reuter, The AnnalsofFulda , Manchester, 1992, p. 52); Hludowici et Karoli pactum Tusiacense , 865, MGH Capit. II, no. 244, pp. 165–7.
Following the lead of Timothy Reuter, whose translation of the AnnalsofFulda appears in this same series, I have tried to avoid the
feudal vocabulary of the High Middle Ages and favoured neutral
terminology wherever possible. Hence, principes or
primates have been translated as ‘leading men’
rather than ‘princes’ or ‘nobles’. A similar
strategy has been followed in regard to miles (or
have, however, cited directly translations of
the Annals of St-Bertin , AnnalsofFulda and Regino of
Prüm’s Chronicle , which are already available
in the Manchester Medieval Sources series (and have not given page
numbers for the Latin text of these sources).
Response 3: 122