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Torbjørn L. Knutsen

power and authority over vast, Western territories. However, the Carolingian Empire (like the Merovingian Empire before it) did not long survive its founder. It disintegrated in all but name soon after Charlemagne’s death. The demise of the Carolingian Empire was quickened by new waves of destructive migrations. Magyar, Viking and Arab assaults threatened to bring chaos to the Far West in the eighth and ninth centuries – as the Goths had done half a millennium earlier. But the Carolingian Empire lacked a strong imperial centre. Although Charlemagne had

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Kathleen G. Cushing

literate, the glory of Rome and the Roman Empire was a distant literary memory. More immediate and still resonant for the learned men of western Europe around the year 1000 was the overlordship of the great late eighth- and early ninth-century Frankish king and emperor, Charlemagne, whose empire had stretched over much of western Europe. The Carolingian empire had afforded the West a semblance of political stability, not least through its promotion of ecclesiastical reform, its emphasis on Latin as the political and cultural lingua franca , and its advocacy of monastic

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
Carolingian local correctio and an unknown priests’ exam from the early ninth century
Carine van Rhijn

for priestly knowledge, we also have the actual books they studied and worked with. Interestingly, it is exactly in these kinds of manuscripts that we find the Dic mihi. 15 Susan Keefe has gathered all Carolingian baptismal expositions and explanations, editing over sixty such texts. See S. Keefe, Water and the Word. Baptism and the Education of the Clergy in the Carolingian Empire, 2 vols, Vol. II (Notre Dame, 2002), passim. Many of these texts, again, survive in manuscripts together with priests’ exams. 16 See, for instance, the first episcopal statute by

in Religious Franks
Philip M. Taylor

pillaging Norsemen began to raid the towns of western and northern Europe, beginning seriously in 834, and penetrating the Rhine, Seine, and Loire rivers. Militarily and psychologically, their greatest asset was surprise, appearing without warning in their swift long-boats to plunder and pillage towns and monasteries before escaping back to their Scandinavian bases. Given that the Carolingian empire was also subjected to Moslem raids in the south – in Spain, Italy, and France – the Vikings provided Charlemagne’s successors with a guerilla war on two fronts, extended to a

in Munitions of the Mind
1 Peter 2.9 and the Franks
Gerda Heydemann

Lord’s anointed’, p. 109. 35 Alcuin, Ep. 134, ed. E. Dümmler, MGH Epp. 4, 1–481, pp. 202–3; more recently edited by S. Keefe, Water and the Word. Baptism and the Education of the Clergy in the Carolingian Empire, 2 vols, Vol. II (Notre Dame, 2002), text 9, pp. 238–45; cf. Keefe, Water and the Word, Vol. I, pp. 80–99 for discussion; O. Phelan, ‘Textual transmission and authorship in the Carolingian period. Primo paganus, baptism, and Alcuin of York’, Revue Bénédictine 118 (2008), 262–88. 33 22 Gerda Heydemann and Walter Pohl invoking kingdom and priesthood even

in Religious Franks
Abstract only
Kriston R. Rennie

came to be recognised in France. Their triumph was rapid and bright.’ 28 Jean-François Lemarignier employed the same thunderous language, defining the dominant historical discourse on monastic exemption, arguing that it produced a new form of liberty that experienced its ‘première application éclatante’ 29 in the wake of a crumbling Carolingian Empire. The ‘singularités françaises’ 30 in the ecclesiastical history of the Middle Ages, it is argued, can be found most readily in the relations between the papacy and the Church in France. The

in Freedom and protection
Lower office holders
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

Europe. The latter were expected to follow different sets of norms, such as those set out in the Carolingian episcopal normative texts issued by bishops, exclusively meant for the clergy, and they were subject to different courts. There were also marked differences between lay office holders and priests regarding marriage and inheritance. The sources mention a bewildering range of titles for subordinate office holders: in the Carolingian Empire alone we find gastaldi , centuriones , centenarii , sculdhaizi , tribuni , vicarii , vicecomites , decani , actores

in Neighbours and strangers
Abstract only
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

administrative institutions did not begin to develop significantly until the eleventh century. Portugal did not acquire an independent political identity before the later eleventh century. In the far north-east, in the Pyrenees and their southern and western hinterland, lay Catalonia, subject to Frankish expeditions in the late eighth century and established as a march of the Carolingian Empire in the early ninth. Initially comprising seven counties, more were added before the more prominent counts began to absorb the lesser counties; these counts continued to look to the

in Neighbours and strangers
Bart Jaski

834 (he was formally deposed in 835), rather than to his brief return from 840 to 841.1 The archbishop of Reims is 1 For Ebo’s career, see primarily P. McKeon, ‘Archbishop Ebbo of Reims (816–835): a study in the Carolingian empire and the Church’, Church History 43 (1974), 437–47, although it is in some respects outdated. For Ebo’s deposition, see B. Selten, ‘The good, the bad or the unworthy? Accusations, defense and representation in the case The ruler with the sword 73 regarded as the most likely candidate to have commissioned the manuscript, while Louis

in Religious Franks
Regino of Prüm and royal monastic conversion
Erik Goosmann and Rob Meens

Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg (Manchester/New York 2009). On the significance of 908, the year in which Louis turned fifteen, see MacLean, History and Politics, p. 18. 2 S. Airlie, ‘ “Sad stories of the death of kings”: narrative patterns and structures of authority in Regino of Prüm’s Chronicle’, in E. Tyler and R. Balzaretti (eds), Narrative and History in the Early Medieval West (Turnhout, 2006), 105–31, p. 126. See also R. Meens, ‘The rise and fall of the Carolingians. Regino of Prüm and his conception of the Carolingian empire’, in L. Jégou, S. Joye, T

in Religious Franks