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Hincmar in the crisis of 875
Clémentine Bernard-Valette

examples of Ambrose and Martin. Like Ambrose, Martin stayed in his city and faced the usurper Maximus. 40 Their examples are supported by two quotations from Augustine to show firstly that communication with a king without being contaminated by his sin is possible, and secondly that it is not his usurpation that is held against him, but the sacrileges of which it is the cause. 41 As the Carolingian Empire was Christian, there was little risk of bishops being prosecuted and led to martyrdom. As a consequence, Martin and Ambrose are more effective examples because they

in Hincmar of Rheims
Priests as neighbours in early medieval local societies
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

others of those monasteries which it has been granted us to rule, we grant him permission to do so. 48 In the course of the ninth century, Theodulf’s instructions were distributed all over the Carolingian Empire, while in the tenth and eleventh centuries the text reached Italy, Spain and England. In many manuscripts copied outside Theodulf’s diocese, the names of the monasteries were adapted or omitted altogether, showing that this invitation was understood and used widely. 49 Of course, not every early medieval priest was in a position to use such episcopal

in Neighbours and strangers
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

stand for the rights of the community to which they belonged. The limits of the use of inquest are also shown in a rare example from north-west Spain: here, when questioned, two men from each of five settlements made responses about past practice in their locality that were so ambiguous that a test by ordeal had to be arranged. 85 Interestingly, bishops in the Carolingian Empire developed an analogous instrument to the inquisitio during the later ninth century in order to be informed as accurately as possible about abuses in the parishes of their dioceses during

in Neighbours and strangers
Rachel Stone

Word (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 227–41. 15 Waldere , ed. E. van Kirk Dobbie, The Anglo-Saxon Minor Poems (New York, 1942), pp. 4–6. 16 T. Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute in the Carolingian empire’, TRHS , 5th series, 35 (1985), pp

in Frankland
Margaret J. McCarthy

in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge, 2003), pp.  116–17. 43 M.  J. McCarthy, ‘Power and kingship under Louis II the Stammerer, 877–879’ (PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge, 2012), pp.  74–7. 44 Devisse, Hincmar , II, p.  922. 45 Ibid . 46 Ibid ., I, p.  29: ‘Reims est aussi un centre important pour l’administration du royaume et Charles compte sur le prélat pour l’aider à reprendre en mains un

in Hincmar of Rheims
Charles West

Hincmar would have liked); relevant too were ideas about the deference owed to patrons, whether these patrons were kings or the founders or owners of a small local church; so too were rules about ‘translation’, that is moving from one church to another. 62 Just as the great abbeys and cathedrals of the Carolingian Empire were sanctified places, so Hincmar considered that modest parish churches were holy buildings too, whose materiality was of great symbolic significance and therefore needed to be monitored. 63 If the issues raised by the parish were both major and

in Hincmar of Rheims
Jenny Benham

duchy of Normandy, as one of the earliest principalities to be formed out of the crumbling Carolingian empire, has often been seen as being contained within the distinctive lines formed by the rivers Epte, Eure and Avre. 31 Several historians and historical geographers have commented on how these medieval political boundaries often followed much older demarcations. Charlemagne

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Jenny Benham

deiussor, warantus ), who is a surety, but is not deprived of liberty’. Kosto, ‘Hostages in the Carolingian World’, 128. 23 Timothy Reuter, ‘Plunder and Tribute in the Carolingian Empire’, TRHS , 5th ser., 35 (1985), 75–8; Kershaw, ‘Rex Pacificus’, 128

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
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Collective action in rural settlements
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

–33 – translated in C. Hammer, Charlemagne’s Months and their Bavarian Labors: The Politics of the Seasons in the Carolingian Empire (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1997), pp. 53–70; Vita sancti Geraldi Auriliacensis , ed. A.-M. Bultot-Verleysen (Brussels: Société des Bollandistes, 2009), p. 168. 18 Miracula Sancti Remacli , p. 697. 19 See M. Lauwers, ‘Le “travail” sans la domination?’, in Dierkens, Schroeder and Wilkin (eds), Penser la paysannerie médiévale , pp. 303–32; cf. P. Freedman, Images of the Medieval Peasant (Stanford, CA: Stanford University

in Neighbours and strangers
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Pursuing enemies to death in France between the ninth and the eleventh centuries
John Gillingham

Carolingian empire’, TRHS 5th series 35 (1985), pp. 75–94, at p. 91. A recent book of essays has advocated the use of the terms ‘intracultural’ and ‘transcultural’ wars: see in particular S. Morillo, ‘A general typology of transcultural wars – the early Middle Ages and beyond’, in H-H. Kortüm (ed.), Transcultural Wars from the Middle Ages to the 21st

in Frankland