final ‘brew’ in 1943–45, once they were discussed and then discarded,
adapted or adopted by the Big Four at their Conferences. The main aim of
this chapter is to elucidate that policy process, particularly as it applied to
the future of Germany and, by extension, the whole of Europe.
A secondary aim of the chapter is to show how the Allies interacted as
they went about this policy-making process. The purpose of this is twofold:
first to show that the resulting compromises in effect gave rise to tensions
that were to be both creative (as in the decisions taken about
Edited and introduced by Nobel Laureate John Hume, T.G. Fraser and Leonie Murray, this book provides a range of unique insights into the issues surrounding peacemaking, delivered by major international figures with direct experience in this area at the highest level. Based on a series of lectures on the theme of ‘Peace’ given under the auspices of the Tip O’Neill Chair in Peace Studies at the University of Ulster’s Magee campus and funded by The Ireland Funds, each lecture is presented with an introduction placing it in its proper context within the discourse on peacemaking. The volume makes an invaluable contribution to the study of peace and conflict studies, international history, international relations and international politics.
Alternative approaches to violence in International Relations
This introductory chapter tries to form a set of themes and a broad body of literature which could be creatively used to study the alternative accounts of contemporary violence in the study of international relations. It examines the work of scholars concerned with meaning in international relations and shows how paramilitaries, international aid groups, human rights organisations, transnational media-corporations, militias and inter-governmental organisations are all involved in contemporary war. This chapter also studies a body of interpretive work that helps connect area studies and social networks with studies of narrative identity.
, creatively, to explore
alternative accounts of contemporary violence in International Relations.
Chapter 1 sought to introduce the phenomenological roots of hermeneutic
studies, while also establishing a link to narratives accounts of identity.
Thereafter the goal of Chapter 2, and the book as a whole was to explore the
local social, historical and cultural dynamics which shaped the armed resistance movements in the latter part of the 1990s. Chapter 2 then introduced
the two case studies and offered some preliminary historical details, while
Chapter 3 built on this move
plant and that leaders have
to bring their constituencies with them. But like all political midwives
they grow concerned that too much nurturing can lead to a form of
infantilism – we can see why Galtung falls back on the psychological.
Indeed it is only Dermot Ahern and Maurice Hayes who can begin
to properly indulge in the sunny uplands. Following the literature on
peace studies it is Dr Hayes who takes the debate to a new level when
he invokes so strongly the forgotten art of the creative process and the
extent to which building peace is both an art and a skill. He
: ‘while there is much in their
23/10/98, 11:33 am
The planning of an American NWO
conduct we do not like, yet it has the cardinal virtue of being creative’. If
anything, he wished the Republicans to be seen as more creative than the
Democrats, more willing to think the unthinkable, not to ‘primarily be
interested in restoring things as they were and then maintaining them as they
are’. What he wanted was ‘to make our keynote the righteous and creative
faith, first of the individual and then of the nation’.80
Dulles was made Republican
Standing on one’s head may not be very creative and one’s political
opponents may consider that this is the exercise one is permanently
engaged in but it does provide a somewhat different perspective, not
necessarily an upside down one.
If standing on one’s head is perverse, it is the perversity of enthusiasm
that gladly made me accept the John Hume invitation, for a number of
First, John Hume has been the peacemaker par excellence for the
forty years I have known him. Over the past decade, we in South Africa
have followed his attempts to bring together the
the consolidation of identity and regroupment while supporting
more effective efforts for inclusion in the larger society’.40 In this
model, dissident citizenship ‘encompasses the often creative oppositional practices of citizens who, either by choice or (much more
commonly) by forced exclusion from the institutionalized means of
opposition, contest current arrangements of power from the margins
of the polity’.41 Crossing borders and queering citizenship shows how
reading can be one of these creative oppositional practices.
Reading and the civic subject
To map how
Tackling those challenges will require a new partnership between the
new Northern Ireland Executive and the Irish government.
I want to reflect tonight on three important issues for that collective
The first is building prosperity.
North–South cooperation has already delivered tangible benefits to
all parts of this island. It has enabled creative and innovative all-island
thinking in many diverse policy areas. Revitalising border communities
and harnessing synergies in energy and transport are just some examples.
borders –physical or figurative, political or socially constructed, geographical or psychic –gestures towards a citizenship that is founded
on principles vastly different than those we might recognise today.
Anzaldúa, Allison, Scofield, Gómez-Peña, Moure, Díaz, and Martel
may represent only a few ‘ways’ of being ‘peripheral’, but their
readerly solutions to the problem of civic exclusion are applicable
beyond one particular minority group, and are elegant, creative, and
1 Thomas King, ‘Borders’, in One Good Story, That One