Yitzhak Hen. This contains a copy of the
compendium comprising the apocryphal correspondence between Seneca and
St Paul and the supposed exchange of letters between Alexander the Great and
Dindimus, king of the Brahmins. The compendium was apparently originally
compiled by Alcuin for Charlemagne. Hen suggests that this compendium was
carefully crafted in order to soothe the emperor’s anxiety and reassure him
that his rule was rightful in God’s eyes. A mirror for ‘princes who had opted
out’ is identified by Erik Goosmann and Rob Meens in their interpretation of
Historical Review 84 (1969), 528–48.
Moore, R. I., The First European Revolution c. 970–1215 (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000).
Owen Hughes, D., ‘From brideprice to dowry in Mediterranean Europe’, Journal of Family History 3 (1978), 262–96.
Poly, J.-P., and M. Bournazel, La Mutation féodale Xe–XIIe siècles (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1981); trans. C. Higgit as The Feudal Transformation: 900–1200 (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1991).
ReginoofPrüm, Chronicle , trans. S. MacLean, History and Politics in Late Carolingian and
significance of this quality by stressing at two further occasions that the ‘most energetic’ ( exercitatissimus ) Charlemagne despised idleness.
The Gesta is not the only Carolingian source to accentuate the industriousness of warriors or kings, suggesting that vigour and commitment were considered key qualities in late Carolingian warrior culture. ReginoofPrum, for example, a contemporary of Notker, regularly employed the terms strennuus (strenuous) and industrius (industrious) in his chronicle to characterise
normalized these practices in the course of the ninth century. The councils of 813, though their decrees survive in very few manuscripts, impacted on penance as a royal and collective act in the reign of Louis the Pious, and the impulse followed through in later conciliar decisions. 92 At the beginning of the tenth century, ReginoofPrüm produced a canon law collection whose survival in no fewer than eleven manuscripts indicates that it reached a larger public. 93 Entitled Cases brought before Councils and Ecclesiastical Disciplines , and dedicated to Archbishop Hatto
Ep.IV.22, pp. 147–9, only a position of great power removed a historian from
either suppressing the truth or inventing a lie (vel supprimere verum vel concinnare
mendacium) and, whilst it is shameful to utter falsehoods, it is dangerous to tell the
truth (turpiter falsa periculose vera dicuntur); cf. ReginoofPrüm, Chronicle, trans. S.
MacLean, History and Politics in Late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe: The Chronicle of
ReginoofPrüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg (Manchester, 2009), I pref., pp. 61–2 (see
also page 446). Writing in the 1050s, William of
Ottonian Germany: the chronicon of Thietmar
of Merseburg ; Widukind of Corvey, Deeds of the
Saxons ; Liudprand of Cremona, The complete works ;
Queenship and sanctity: the lives of Mathilda and the epitaph
of Adelheid ; History and politics in late Carolingian and
Ottonian Europe: the chronicle of ReginoofPrüm and
Episcopal authority and the reconciliation of excommunicants in England and Francia c.900–c.1150
and examination of the Frankish evidence casts further light on the
The Frankish rite
The earliest example of the
Frankish rite for the reconciliation of excommunicants was recorded over
a century earlier than the English rite, in ReginoofPrüm’s early tenth-century collection of canon law (see
Table 11.2). 21 There it
See e.g., ReginoofPrüm,
Chronicon , ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG (Hanover, 1890),
s.a. 818, p. 73. Cf. Alcuin, MGH Epistolae IV, no. 231, p.
376 (on Torhtmund).
Einhard, Vita Karoli Magni , ed. O.
Holder-Egger, MGH SRG (Hanover, 1911) [hereafter VK]
The perception of religious motives of warfare against non-Christian enemies in ninth-century chronicles
sanguinem parentum vestrorum effusum vindicari recolitis et sacra sub honore sanctorum creatoris vestri templa eversa iam in patria vestra cernitis, ministros eciam Dei summo gradu consistentes prostratos videtis .’
Ibid .: ‘ sed non in diu subveniente gratia Dei victoria ad christianos concessit ’. Similar arguments can be found in ReginoofPrüm, Chronicon , a. 882, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG , 50 (Hanover
decisively on the others. Although these
kingdoms retained a sense of belonging to a common Frankish world, and
all were modelled on the legacy of Charlemagne, the empire’s
territorial and dynastic coherence was gone. This post-imperial era of
political instability was the age of ReginoofPrüm. 1
Regino the abbot was a victim of
this instability: the defining moment of his career came in 899 when he