point the film is ‘locked-off which means that the final stages
– soundediting, music composing and recording, sound mixing, negative
cutting and grading of the final print – can proceed unhindered by any
further changes. 3 What
eventually reaches the screen is usually several steps away from the initial
intention and seldom the work of a dominant, single-minded, directorial
authority bringing a finely conceived, original
subject to its gaze. If anything, the subtle camera movement
and its angles, the teasing and revealing use of framing, the expository but
misleading use of deep focus and the artful soundediting adopt the strategy
of imitating his purpose but making him victim of it too. Thus, although the
film was the target of feminist criticism at the Venice Film Festival, the
constantly shifting perspective complicates the accusation of being shot
John Izod, Karl Magee, Kathryn Hannan, and Isabelle Gourdin-Sangouard
with an account of the editing process, then in its third
iteration. He also relayed discussions between Frears and Grade on the
screening order of the six plays. They preferred Saturday-rather than
Sunday-night transmission, expecting (backed by LWT’s scheduling
experience) stronger viewing figures. Anderson provided Sutcliffe with the
schedule of picture cutting and soundediting and hoped the journalist would
; post-synchronised sound; the smoothing of soundedits in re-recording; and the augmentation of natural sound with
‘sound effects’. The manifesto required that its signatories
should work only in real locations with a hand-held camera shooting in
available light. There were other preferred tendencies which involved the
use of available props and the absence of set dressing. Films made within
the terms of the manifesto would
blimp. Mechanical sounds produced by the camera are constructed as
problematic in filmmaking practices, like those developed by the Hollywood
studio system, which prioritise the concepts of flow and continuity. In
classical cinema, sounds produced by the camera are prohibited not simply
because they signal the means of production, but also because soundedits
might be rendered audible by the varying levels and qualities of camera
manipulation of soundediting Rivette can even bring the tones of the Racinian verse spoken
onstage directly into connection with Claire, isolated in her flat.
Rivette’s 35mm camera, however, while it moves easily
around the length, breadth and height of the room, keeps a distance from the
performance space, rarely intruding itself into these interactions.
In fact it remains self-consciously detached, in a position comparable to
Blunden Harbour (1951) , Gardner used asynchronous drumming and shamanic chanting to suggest transcendent significance. In his later ethnographic films, the soundediting becomes progressively more sophisticated. In
, the soundtrack is greatly enriched but largely in a straightforward realist manner. In Rivers of Sand ( 1974 ), however, it begins to take on a more metaphorical function. Early in the film, the sound from a shot of a donkey braying in synch is carried
and the first-hand acting out of key aspects of that life that the film-maker achieves ethnographic understanding. Also important, however, is the principle that this immersion should always involve active collaborative relationships with the subjects.
The making of
was collaborative in a number of different regards. In a precise technical sense, inspired by the example of Steven Feld's ground-breaking work among the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea, Ferrarini used soundediting software in
Film (New York: Knopf).
Wonderfully eloquent, learned and suggestive dialogues. Drawing upon his work on such films as Apocalypse Now (1979) and The English Patient (1996), Murch, prompted subtly by Ondaatje, teases out the aesthetics of picture and soundediting.
Orpen, Valerie (2002), Film Editing: The Art of the Expressive (London: Wallflower).
Good starting point: lacks Fairservice’s substantial historical detail, but clear, concise and featuring helpful case studies.
Rohdie, Sam (2006), Montage (Manchester: Manchester